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What is an Aspx File?

What is an Aspx File?

Recently, we have been experiencing filename extensions that leave us scratching our heads. For example, files like HEIC, XAPK, and standard FLAC files can turn up; therefore, you might not know what to do with them.  A perfect example of this is the ASPX file, where you might not know what an ASPX file is used for. But it can irritate you as Windows does not know what to do with them by default. So Microsoft made the file format. However, it is possible to open the .aspx files.

But it isn’t necessary to do this if you work in IT on web servers or web development. You should know that .pdf, .jpg, and other file types can sometimes appear as them. Let’s dive into the article to learn what is a .aspx file and how do I open it.

What is an ASPX file?

ASPX, Active Server Pages, is a file format that web servers use. It is created using Microsoft ASP.NET, an open-source development framework. Web developers use it to make dynamic web pages using the .NET and C# programming languages.

It iterates on the ASP, a technology that precedes it. But it never uses Microsoft’s .NET language. Rather than that, you can find the File written in other frameworks. For example, it is known as a .NET Web Form. Besides, it is possible to determine if a web page is written in ASPX while a ‘.aspx’ suffix is applied to the URL.

These files can contain different scripts or other open-source files browsers receive from web servers. In addition, these are web service components that can offer dynamic elements on a page. If you are an end user, you cannot see or interact with these file types during the online experience. But when they do it, you can experience an error with the web service’s configuration. Let’s know more details about what is an aspx file extension.

More Information:

These pages are known as “.NET Web forms.” It is possible to recognize these pages in a web browser using the URL in the address field ending in .aspx.

Microsoft developed and released it in 2002 to succeed Active Server Pages (ASP). Web developers use this web app framework to create dynamic sites and apps.

Common ASPX File Names:

Default.aspx is a default webpage. It is loaded if a client browser requests a web server directory on a Microsoft IIS-based server. In this case, the server, which is Microsoft IIS-based, must use ASP.NET.

For instance, if a client requests HTTP:/​/​www.sampledomain.com/​, the server will load the following URL HTTP:/​/​www.sampledomain.com/​Default.aspx unless you configure it to load another one.

How Do You Convert .ASPX to HTML?

The HTML ones are static. Therefore, if you convert this type to HTML, you might lose all the dynamic elements of the page. If you are willing to convert it, load the page in your browser and tap on it. After that, you should tap on the View Page Source and save that to the local HDD. You may try to load this. It will appear on your page, but nothing will work.

Programs to Open ASPX File on Different Devices:

Programs depend on which type of device you use. Therefore, we have given names of the supported programs for different devices.

Windows:

  • File Viewer Plus
  • Microsoft Visual Studio 2019
  • ES-Computing EditPlus
  • Adobe Dreamweaver 2020
  • Any Web browser

Mac:

  • Adobe Dreamweaver 2020
  • Any Web browser

Linux:

  • Any Web browser

Android:

  • File Viewer for Android

 .ASPX File Format:

ASP.NET web forms depend on the event-driven model to interact with the web app. In this case, the browser submits a web form to the server as an end user. In return, the server returns a full markup page or HTML page. Besides, the ASP.NET component model can provide an object model for these pages. The model describes:

Thre are server side counterparts of all HTML elements or tags, like <form> and <input>.

Server controls are used to develop the most challenging user interface, like the Calendar or the Gridview control. These use the ASP.NET Code Behind model to create pages.

In-Line Code:

It is a sample code that can offer all the functionality for user implementation. This code displays a sample ASP.NET page with inline code:

<%@ Language=C# %>

<HTML>

<script runat=”server” language=”C#”>

void MyButton_OnClick(Object sender, EventArgs e)

{

MyLabel.Text = MyTextbox.Text.ToString();

}

</script>

<body>

<form id=”MyForm” runat=”server”>

<asp:textbox id=”MyTextbox” text=”Hello World” runat=”server”></asp:textbox>

<asp:button id=”MyButton” text=”Echo Input” OnClick=”MyButton_OnClick” runat=”server”></asp:button>

<asp:label id=”MyLabel” runat=”server”></asp:label>

</form>

</body>

</HTML>

Code-Behind:

You can write the code and store it in separate class files for clean separation of HTML from presentation logic. As a result, the presentation layer becomes independent of the executable code. It is the code-behind for presentation purposes.

<%@ Language=”C#” Inherits=”MyStuff.MyClass” %>

<HTML>

<body>

<form id=”MyForm” runat=”server”>

<asp:textbox id=”MyTextBox” text=”Hello World” runat=”server”></asp:textbox>

<asp:button id=”MyButton” text=”Echo Input” Onclick=”MyButton_Click” runat=”server”></asp:button>

<asp:label id=”MyLabel” runat=”server” />

</form>

</body>

</HTML>

The genuine logic’s C# implementation for the presentation layer is as follows:

using System;

using System.Web;

using System.Web.UI;

using System.Web.UI.WebControls;

namespace MyStuff

{

public class MyClass: Page

{

protected System.Web.UI.WebControls.Label MyLabel;

protected System.Web.UI.WebControls.Button MyButton;

protected System.Web.UI.WebControls.TextBox MyTextBox;

public void MyButton_Click(Object sender, EventArgs e)

{

MyLabel.Text = MyTextBox.Text.ToString();

}

}

}

How do you open an ASPX file as a PDF?

If you want to open it as a PDF, you should first open it with the standard app on the computer. Next, navigate to File and then Print. You should, after that, choose “Microsoft XPS Document Writer” as your printer. After that, tap on “OK” or “Print.” Now, you should select a destination for the XPS file and tap on the “Save” option.

How to open an ASPX file:

While downloading any file from the internet to your system, you will see the download in a .aspx format though you were expecting other formats like PDF. In this case, renaming this can work for you. Besides, you may change the type to the one you expect to have, like .pdf.

If the File you want to open is in the correct format, several options are available. Microsoft initially wanted it to be available in its open-source integrated developer environment (IDE) Visual Studio Code. However, there are other programs, both free and paid. So, you may use an alternate.

Open ASPX files with Notepad++:

It is a free source code editor. As it is compatible with many languages, it becomes a perfect replacement for Notepad. This editor can support even CGI format. While the code is in C++ programming language, it depends on the editing component Scintilla. In addition, it can provide a higher execution speed and smaller program size for using Win32 API and STL.

Rename the ASPX File:

If you find your Windows unable to open this, try to rename it. Renaming it to PDF allows you to open and view it. Here are the steps you should follow to rename it.

Before renaming this, set up the PC to see the file extensions. Then, go through these steps to do so.

  • First, your job is to tap on the “Windows” + “R” key on the keyboard to bring up the Run box.
  • After that, write “control folder” in the text field.
  • Hit the “OK” button or tap on the “Enter” key on the keyboard to bring a “File Explorer Options” window.
  • Move to the “View” tab.
  • Next, tap on the “Uncheck” where the box asks, “Hide extensions for known file types.”
  • Then, hit the “Apply” button.
  • Now, hit the “OK” button.
  • Thus, it is possible to view the file extension on the PC.

Let’s know how to rename it to PDF:

  • First, find the .aspx File on the pc and tap on it.
  • After that, select the “Rename” option from the context menu.
  • Next, change the file extension to PDF.
  • Now, the prompt appears to confirm your action, and tap on “Yes.”
  • It helps you to change this to PDF. Then, it is finally possible to see and read the PDF. But renaming it can make your content corrupted. Besides, you might not see the content in PDF format.

Open ASPX File with Adobe Reader:

Using Adobe Reader to open it is a simple way to see it. In this case, ensure that you have successfully installed the software on your laptop or computer. Then, follow these steps to learn how to open it.

  • Tap on the “Start” menu on the pc.
  • After that, you should tap the “View by” option on the window top.
  • Next, you should select “Small icons” and tap on “Default Programs.”
  • Then, you should tap “Associate a file type or protocol with a program” and find the “.aspx” protocol.
  • Now, your job is to tap on “Change program” and select “More apps.”
  • Head toward the “Adobe Reader” program.
  • Finally, you should hit the “OK” button to switch the program.

Thus, once you implement the steps, you can set this with Adobe Reader to see it. This software is also compatible with other formats.

Convert the .aspx into PDF File:

You can use browsers, including Google Chrome, Firefox, etc., to see and open it on your PC because it is an Internet media-type document. If you can use the web browser to see the File, go through these steps.

  • Tap on the one which is in the extension format.
  • After that, tap on Open within the menu bar.
  • Choose Google Chrome below the Open with context menu.
  • Next, you should tap on Google Chrome.
  • Now it becomes easier to open it locally in the browser. Select other browsers such as Microsoft Edge, and Firefox, if you want.
  • Finally, you can view it in any web browser supported by Windows 10. However, if you wish to see it on the computer, it is essential to convert it into pdf format. After that, you can see the contents of it.

What if Google Chrome is not available?

  • If this web browser is unavailable in the menu option, tap on the “Choose another app” option.
  • After that, you should browse it under the “Program” file.
  • Choose the “Google Chrome” folder. Thus, you can select the app to see this type.

How to open the .aspx File if you use windows 7?

If you use Windows 7 and are willing to know how to open it, go through these steps.

  • First, look for it on Windows 7.
  • Then, you should tap twice on it. Hence, an error pops up asking, “Windows can’t open this file.”
  • Afterward, you should choose the “Select a program from a list of installed programs” option.
  • Hit the “OK” button.
  • Then, browse to select “Google Chrome” from the list.

If you are willing to convert it to pdf, these are the steps you should follow.

  • Open it in Chrome. Then, tap on the Ctrl + P key to open the Print page pop-up window.
  • Navigate to the Destination drop-down and choose the “Save as PDF” option.
  • Once you select the Save as PDF option, hit the Save button marked in blue color. Thus, you can convert it into a pdf.
  • You will see this converted into a pdf as soon as you perform these steps.
  • Thus, it is possible to open this on the computer and see its content.

Use online converters:

You can use the online converters’ help to convert these to pdf. The process may take some time, but you can download a PDF. These are a few online converters.

If you want to convert it into a pdf with online converters, try to upload it first. Then, hit the Convert to PDF button. In this case, its size is a dependable factor. Based on that, it will be converted into a PDF. Next, a download button appears. Tap on it. Now, you can see the downloaded PDF that you can open on Windows 10.

Other .ASPX files:

Suppose you see a URL ending with .aspx in a browser bar. It indicates that the page is run as part of an ASP.NET framework. Besides, you can not open it yourself because the browser has to do it automatically. The web server running ASP.NET usually processes the code inside the File. Instead, use Microsoft’s free Visual Studio to open and edit. It is possible to open it up with the help of a normal text editor.

Still Can’t Open It?

Ensure you must not confuse other names with the names of the .aspx file extensions. For instance, ASX files appear to have connections to them. However, they might be Alpha Five Library Temporary Index files supporting the context of the Alpha Anywhere platform. The same occurs for ASCX also.

Conclusion:

You cannot open these on Windows PC. But the given tricks allow you to open and read them. You can open it using Google Chrome and save it as a PDF. This one is the most effective way to open it. You can open this even in the future. It is all you can learn from this article what an aspx file pdf is.

Frequently Asked Question:

  • How do you open ASPX files on Android?

Open it first, as usual, and head toward File. Then, go to “Print” and select print as a PDF.

  • How do you open an ASPX file on a Mac?

Microsoft comes with a Mac version of its Visual Studio software to open it on Mac. You only need to download Visual Studio and install it on the company’s website.

  • How do you create an ASPX file using inline code instead of code behind?

You should create a new web page using inline code in Visual Studio. Ensure that the Place code remains unchecked.

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How to Open Pages File?

How to Open Pages File?

The Pages app is actually a Mac word processor, which is the same as Microsoft Word on Windows. Usually, this document is saved as a format file by default with a “.pages” file extension. And let us know how to open pages file or files with .pages extension.

Mac users can not see it. But if you send this to someone on a Windows computer, they can see this extension file. In this case, you should know that most Windows apps and Microsoft Office can’t read the format by default. You might think your Windows can’t use it, but that’s not the case. So let’s dive into the article to learn how to open pages File in Microsoft Word.

What is a PAGES file?

It is a document made by Apple Pages, a word processor and page layout program for macOS and iOS. This document can save as a report, poster, resume, newsletter, book, certificate, or brochure made from a blank page or built from a template. These documents contain text and page formatting information. In addition, it has images, tables, graphs, and charts.

These are the same as Microsoft Word. But still, it is impossible to open them directly on a Windows device. Therefore, we have given different methods in this guide to inform you how to open pages File in Word.

More Information About .Pages File:

It is available in the iWork office suite with Numbers and Keynote. We use pages to compose different documents and save them as PAGES files. If you want, you can convert these to another format.

It appears while using an Apple device, like a MacBook or iPad. Besides, you can save documents with the Pages application. However, you can face it if you don’t use any Apple device. For instance, your friend using Pages on a Mac can share a letter only if it is saved as a PAGES file.

How to Create a PAGES file:

Do you know how to open pages File on Mac? Before that, you should read this section carefully. The app saves documents as PAGES files by default, similar to Word saving documents as DOCX files by default. So, if you want to make a file on a Mac, you should choose File first. Then, New…, select a template or a blank document, and choose File → Save….

How to Open Pages File ( .pages ) Extension:

1) iCloud:

It is the cloud computing and storage service of Apple. People can use web-only access to iCloud though they don’t have an Apple device, and access the Drive, Pages, Keynotes, Notes, Contacts, etc.

These are the steps to follow:

  • First, you need to launch one browser.
  • Navigate to the iCloud website.
  • Sign in to the Apple ID.
  • You should make new when you do not come with any.
  • Hit the Pages icon.
  • Head toward Settings.
  • Tao on Upload Document.
  • As soon as you upload the .pages document, you can open it on your device to edit.

2) PDF Reader:

These are Zip files containing the document information and a JPG file.

Besides, there exists an optional PDF file to preview the document. Thus, it is possible to change the file extension to zip and open it using a PDF reader. Here are the steps to follow:

  • Your task is to look for the File with the format on the system.
  • Then, you need to tap on the File.
  • Next, navigate to Rename from the drop-down menu.
  • After that, you should delete the extension.
  • Exchange it with .zip.
  • Now, tap on “Enter.”
  • Tap Yes while asking for confirmation.
  • You need to tap it twice to open it using WinZip or WinRar.
  • Next, navigate to the Quicklook folder.
  • Finally, tap on Preview to open it using the correct app.

3) Zamzar:

It is an online file converter used to convert more than 1200 formats. With the help of a converter, you can convert .pages format to Word. After that, you should use MS Word to open the converted File. The steps you should follow are:-

  • Head toward the website.
  • Navigate to Document Converters.
  • Choose Pages Converter.
  • Then, tap on Add Files.
  • After that, you should move to the .pages file you prefer to open.
  • Tap on it.
  • Then, tap on Open.
  • Choose doc or docx in the Convert To drop-down menu.
  • Next, you should tap on Convert Now.
  • Now, choose Download to save and open the converted File.
  • It is possible to convert them to .txt, epub, or PDF to open on the device with the correct app.

4) FreeConvert:

If you are a non-Apple user, you should use this online conversion tool. It helps you to upload the File securely via HTTPS protocol. In addition, it enables you to convert it to other preferred formats.

  • Navigate to the website.
  • Then, head toward Document Converters.
  • After that, choose Doc or Docx below the Convert My File To option.
  • Now, you should tap on Choose Files.
  • Navigate to the .pages file which you are willing to convert.
  • Choose the File.
  • Tap Open.
  • Choose Convert to Docx.
  • After completing the conversion, tap on Download Docx.
  • Tap two times on the File to open it in MS Word.
  • It is possible to convert many files of this format to other formats.

5) Cloud Convert:

You can open these files while converting them into DOC or DOCX format. It helps to maintain the quality of Apple’s iWork suite. In addition, it is possible to convert multiple formats into different ones.

  • Navigate to the website.
  • Then, you need to tap on the arrow in the box adjacent to the Convert option.
  • Move to Documents in the drop-down menu.
  • Choose Pages.
  • Head toward Documents in the box beside the To option.
  • Then, choose Doc or Docx.
  • After that, tap on Select File.
  • Now, move to the .pages file which you are willing to open.
  • Choose this by tapping m on it.
  • Tap Open.
  • Next, tap on Convert.
  • Once you see the file processing, you should choose Download to save the File on your device.
  • Tap two times on this to open in the device. It is possible to convert to PDF and TXT formats.

How to open pages File on Windows:

Different ways are there that let you know how to open page files on a windows computer.

Here are a few ways that will let you know how to open pages File on a PC:

Solution 1) Open Pages through a zip compression:

Ensure to change the file extension .pages to change the format. Hence, you should change the File into a zip format via a simple file extension modification from the Windows file system. Before beginning, ensure you have saved a copy to access Windows Explorer. After that, do the following to know How to Open Pages File in Windows 10:

Steps to Follow:

  • First, create a copy of the File.
  • Then, you need to tap on the File and select the “Rename” option.
  • Exchange it with the “.zip” extension after deleting the “.pages” extension. Next, hit the Enter key to save the extension change. For instance, your file name is “today.pages”, and you need to change it to “today.zip.”
  • If you want to unzip it, tap twice on the newly renamed .zip File. Thus, you can access the Pages format content within Microsoft Word, Office, or WordPad.
  • You can see three files in the zipped folder. Next, you should tap twice on the “QuickLook” folder to open it.
  • Find QuickLook Folder.
  • Then, look for PDF and JPG files in the QuickLook folder. Now, tap twice on the PDF file.
  • Do you want to read or edit the document on Word? If yes, then converting the PDF document to a Word document is essential.

If you are willing to use the solution, you must have the file extensions visible in Windows to change the .pages extension. These are the steps you should follow to make the file extensions visible and to know How to Open Pages File on a PC in Word:

Steps:

  • Navigate to the Folder Options.
  • Tap on View.
  • Next, you should uncheck the “Hide extensions for known file types” option.
  • Now, you can see the extensions.
  • At last, uncheck the Hide extension for visible files you are familiar with.

Thus, You Get To Know How To Open Pages File On Windows.

Solution 2) Upload the Pages Document on Google Drive:

Upload the document and save it to Google Drive. Ensure to have a Gmail account to access Google Drive. Make a new one if you haven’t one already. Here are the steps to let you know how to open pages File in Google drive.

  • Tap on the document in the Drive and select the option “Open With.”
  • Then, you need to select CloudConvert below the “Suggested Apps” option. Now, you should log in with your Gmail account.
  • Find the cloud convert.
  • Review the service terms if required and tap on the option “Allow.”
  • Make a new account if you do not have one already.
  • Your document can convert easily. After reading “Ready,” hit the drop-down menu. Then, you should select “Document” and then “doc” or “docx” file; after that, unzip it in Word.
  • While it is ended, hit the red “Start Conversion” button at the display’s bottom-left.
  • Then, hit the green “Show File” button adjacent to the document.
  • You can see a preview opened in Drive. Tap on “Download” at the display’s top-right.
  • Wait till the Download is completed. After that, tap the arrow adjacent to the download bar at the display’s bottom-left. Then, you should tap on the option “Open.”
  • Finally, you can see the doc opening in Microsoft Word.

How to Open Pages File on Android:

These ate the steps to follow to know how to open pages File on an android phone.

  • First, your job is to move to https://cloudconvert.com/ in the Android web browser. By default, Chrome is used on most Androids. However, you may use any web browser. Whether you haven’t downloaded it already to your Android, ensure to do it first. You should download any of these from the Play Store if you don’t use Google Docs or Microsoft Word. Remember that one app is essential to open the converted File.
  • Next, you should click Select Files to open Android’s file manager.
  • Choose the File you are willing to open. Then, it can upload the File to the server.
  • Hit the select format button. You can see a drop-down menu containing various file types.
  • Click on docx. You may convert the File to a PDF.
  • Now, you should click on Start Conversion. It is a red button. This File can convert to the new format. After completing the conversion, hit the “Start Conversion” button. It will turn green and ask the option “Download.”
  • Click on Download to download the File to the Downloads folder on the Android device.
  • You need to click on the File in the Downloads folder to open it in Google Docs or Microsoft Word.

How to Open a Pages File on iPhone or iPad:

Ensure to install the app from the App Store. These are the steps you should follow to know how to open pages File on an iPad.

Step 1:

  • First, you should navigate to the App Store and open it.
  • You can find [[Image:|techicon|x30px]] on the home display on your iPhone or iPad.
  • After that, you should click on Search.
  • Now, you need to write pages into the search bar.
  • Click on Pages. In this case, you should hit the orange icon containing a pen drawing a line.
  • Next, click on GET.
  • Then, click on the option Install.

Step 2:

You should open the app after that. You see the orange icon with a pen drawing a line inside. It is available on the home display. Whether you are in the App Store, launch the app by clicking on the option OPEN.

Step 3: You must click on Browse at the display’s bottom-right corner. Hence, you can see a list opening your files in iCloud Drive. You can view only those files which are saved to iCloud Drive.

Step 4: Now, your job is to browse the File. If you find the File saved to iCloud Drive, it must appear on display or within a folder. Whether you use a different cloud server, you should click two times on the left arrow at the display top, left of the “iCloud Drive” header. Thus, you can head toward the “Locations” screen. After that, browse to the Drive and folder where your File is.

Step 5: Finally, you should click on the File to see it. You can see it opening in the app.

These are the steps to go through to know how to open pages File on iOS.

Conclusion:

It is essential to know what is a Pages file. Thus, you learn how to open pages File on laptop, why it is impossible to open and read it directly on any device other than Apple’s, etc. But different workaround can help you to open this on other devices.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Q 1) How do you open a .pages document?

Answer: Using an online document converter is the simplest process. It helps to convert the .pages format to another compatible format like Docx or PDF. Then, you only need to download the converted File to your device and tap twice on it.

  • Q 2) How do you convert a .pages document to Word?

Answer: It is possible to use any file converter. Just navigate to the online converter, choose the Convert format to Pages, and format to Doc or Docx, and hit Convert. Download the File after the completion of the conversion. Then, tap twice to open it with MS Word.

  • Q 3) How do you open a .pages file in Chrome?

Answer: First, your task is to sign in to the Google account and move to Google Drive. After that, you need to tap on New and choose File Upload. Next, move to the Pages file you want and select it. Then, you tap on Open with and choose Google Doc. Now, you can see the File. Therefore, we hope that now you have understood how to open pages File on Google docs.

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Where Do Permanently Deleted Photos Go?

Where Do Permanently Deleted Photos Go?

Where do permanently deleted photos go if you delete them? Do you know how to recover them? The article will let you know all the details related to it. In addition, you can learn how to recover the images on PC, iPhone, and Android devices.

Where Do Permanently Deleted Photos Go On Windows?

On Windows 10:

When you delete a file on a PC by tapping the delete option or hitting the “Delete” key, it will move to Recycle Bin, Trash, or something relying on the OS. As soon as you send something to the Recycle Bin or Trash, the icon changes to let you know it contains files. Thus, it enables you to restore a deleted file if required. For example, restoring recently deleted pictures from Recycle Bin is easy.

Where Do Permanently Deleted Photos Go On Your Computer:

If you want to clear space, you may empty the Recycle Bin or Trash. If your PC deletes a file permanently or empties the Recycle Bin, it removes the reference to the file on the hard drive. As soon as you remove the file header or reference, your pc will no longer see the file, and it is no longer readable by the PC. However, you can get the file until you save another file or part of another file to the exact location. Thus, you can recover images as long as they are not overwritten.

How to Recover Permanently Deleted Photos on Your Computer?

How to Recover on Windows 10/11:

You need to prevent using the hard drive while removing images. After that, your task is to apply professional data recovery software, which helps you scan and recover the removed files immediately.

How to Recover on Mac:

There are several ways through which you can recover images on Mac. For instance, you can use a Mac photos recovery tool to recover them. In addition, you can use the Photos app to restore them from Mac Trash.

How to Recover Deleted Photos On iPhone:

If you use iPhone, you can find the removed files in the Recently Deleted album. These will remain there for thirty days, and you can remove them, and it is possible to restore them within thirty days. You may use a reliable iPhone data recovery application if more than thirty days are over.

How to Recover Recent ones on iPhone:

  • Your first task is to go to the Photos app and open it on the iPhone.
  • After that, your job is to scroll down and click on “Recently Deleted.”
  • Your job is now to look for the images you are willing to restore and click on “Recover.” If you want, tap on “Delete” to remove them forever.

How to Recover Permanently Deleted Ones on iPhone:

Whether you want to find an image older than thirty days, you cannot restore it. However, there is a way through which you can recover the removed images from the iTunes backup. You may take the help of an iPhone photo recovery tool.

Step 1. Connect iPhone to the computer:

You should launch the software first and select “Recover from iOS Device” on the left. Next, you need to tap on “Start.”

Step 2. Scan for Lost iPhone Photos:

Your software should have the ability to scan different versions of the iPhone. Hence, you should look for present pictures and even lost images.

Step 3. Preview and Restore pictures:

You should mark the “Photos” on the left. In this case, you can see the images on the mobile and choose those you require to recover. Then, select the option “Recover to PC” or “Recover to Device” to begin retrieving images.

Where do permanently deleted photos go on Android?

In this case, your first task is to access the Photos app and head toward your albums. After that, you should scroll the page to the bottom and click on “Recently Deleted.” You can get all images removed within the last thirty days in the folder. Whether you are willing to recover recently deleted pictures, you only need to select the pictures. After that, you need to hit the Restore button. If the images are over thirty days old, these will be removed.

It is the same as removing images on a computer’s hard drive. While removing images from Android’s internal memory or SD card, it can rewrite the File Access Table on the disk to display the area with the data for the file you have removed for free space. The pattern will remain unseen until another file is written on top of it. Hence, you should use file recovery software.

How to Recover Permanently Deleted ones on Android:

You should use an Android data recovery tool in this case. However, it needs one more step before recovery. Hence, your job is to root the device in advance. After that, you should use your data recovery software to recover lost pictures, contacts, messages, videos, etc. However, the tool can access the rooted Android device only. Therefore, you must ensure that you have rooted your mobile before recovery.

Step 1) Your first task is to install the software for Android and connect your mobile to the PC with a USB cable. Next, you need to hit the “Start” button, allowing the software to recognize and connect your device.

Step 2) Once you connect your android device, your software will start scanning the device to find all the existing and lost data. You only need to select the correct file types to get the images.

Step 3) After that, your job is to preview all available pictures and choose which you are willing to restore. Then, you should hit the “Recover” button to restore the selected data to the PC. Next, you should keep a copy of these recovered images as a backup on the PC. After that, you should transfer these to your android mobile. So, you can keep on using these again.

Where Do Permanently Deleted Photos Go on iPhone and iPad Photos App:

While tapping the trash can icon on your iPhone or iPad, you may see a confirmation asking you if you are willing to delete or cancel. If you select delete, a notice appears asking you that the image will be removed from all of your devices.

You will see your image getting disappearing from view. You can send the pictures to the Recently Deleted album in the Photos app, where these are available for thirty days. If you are willing, return a photo from the album to the mobile, and you may delete it forever.

If you want an album, go to the Photos app and hit Albums in the bottom menu. Now, your job is to swipe to look for the album.

Tapping on the album lets you see images you have removed within the past 30 days. Every image remains a few days until you delete it forever. Whether you decide you are willing to keep an image or delete it at that moment, choose the option Select in the upper right corner of the screen. Click on the image you want to delete to see a checkmark appearing. Click on Delete or Recover at the bottom of the display to remove pictures or add them to the app.

Whether you want to remove a photo from the album, it will ask your choice. Then, you will get a warning: “This photo will be deleted. This action cannot be undone.”

Google Photos:

It keeps the images you delete for sixty days before permanently removing them from the account. You may restore the photos within that time. However, if you don’t want to keep these forever and wait sixty days to disappear automatically, you can delete them.

Go to the app and open it. After that, your job is to click on the menu icon in the upper left corner of the screen. Then, you can see the menu appearing. Next, click on Trash to see the images you delete from the app within the past 60 days.

After that, hit the three dots in the upper right corner of the Trash page. You can see the option of Empty Trash, which can remove images forever in Trash from the app. In addition, you can see there is an option to select images. Hence, you need to delete or restore them only. Next, hit the trash can or the circle arrow in the display’s upper right corner.

Your device will ask you for confirmation if you want to delete images. In this case, you can see the message, “Deleting items from the trash is permanent.”

The Bottom Line:

Have you ever thought about where the pictures go when accidentally deleting them? The article helps you know the location of the files on iPhone, Android, and Windows computers when deleted.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  1. Where do images go when permanently deleted?

If you remove these from a Google Account, these are available on the servers of Google for some days. Generally, these are not longer than a couple of weeks. You can contact the Google Drive support team to recover them.

  1. Are permanently deleted images gone forever?

Whether you have turned on the Backup and Sync, all images and videos will remain in the trash for sixty days before being erased forever.

  1. Where do all permanently deleted pictures go?

It goes to the pictures app’s album, where you can get it for thirty days. You can return it from the album to the mobile within these days.

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Windows 11 Tips and Tricks

Windows 11 Tips and Tricks

In the last few years, you may have tried many things and discovered innovative ways to get things done from home, like your job, homework, connecting with dear ones, etc. Nowadays, technology has progressed a lot, but still, there are many things to improve when it comes to communicating and collaborating. However, windows 11 tips and tricks can quickly fix the issue.

We have given here many windows 11 tips and tricks, letting you know that you can make most of the updated version. These new updates can offer a simple user experience that can quickly become familiar with it.

Top Windows 11 Tips and Tricks:

Get Started:

When you enable your Windows to back up your apps, Get Started will take you to a list of the apps on your old device. It allows you to select what you prefer to load on your new device. In this case, it is better to restore all of your old version photos, docs, and files to the upgraded one rather than beginning it ultimately. These prompts enable you to select what to migrate to the computer. Hence, the Get Started app can apply the preferences and settings. In addition, it allows you to transfer apps and programs.

Start and Taskbar:

These are available in the front and center. You can make these things possible with fewer clicks and swipes. First, your task is to head towards Start and find anything. After that, a centralized search allows you to find the web and computer from one place. Next, you need to look for browsers, tabs, and folders. Finally, it lets you find new visual elements and sounds, smooth animations, new buttons, toggles, and fonts. With the help of the new layout and navigation, you can make complex things easier.

Snap Assist and Desktop Groups:

These are useful in arranging the apps on the desktop. For example, if you have already opened multiple windows, you can drag these to the edge of the screen to turn on Snap Assist. It helps snap them into an arranged grid, making most of the display space. As soon as you have completed upgrading to the new version, it will remember the way you have placed the apps, whether you use external or many displays.

While plugging the computer back in, you will get everything back into its position. Desktop Groups allow you to switch between many desktops quickly. For example, suppose one may have apps including Word, Microsoft Edge, and Teams opened, whereas another may have PowerPoint, OneNote, and a music player. The new version has four standard pre-configured layouts and two extra ones for displays. In addition, it offers effective screen resolutions of 1920×1080 or higher.

Widgets:

Do you want to find things quickly that matter to you most, like to-do lists, upcoming meetings, and news? In this case, you will need one place to get things done quickly. Now, you can enjoy the Widgets in the new version’s Taskbar. Your job is to tap or swipe from the display’s left side first. Then, instead of looking for it in separate apps, tabs, and pages, it lets you see the content you curate. In addition, you can get personalized content, including reminders, stocks, sports scores, social media, and local weather. If necessary, you have to take the help of the Interests page under Manage Interests to find topics and publishers.

Microsoft Store:

The Microsoft Store is now available with a new design. It also offers different apps, shows, and movies, from casual gaming to professional editing. In addition, windows and developers combined work to provide you with more content. This new Microsoft Store features tools including Preview and Search that assist in searching for what you want.

With the help of these tools, including Dark Web monitoring, automatic price comparisons, and vertical tabs, it becomes easier to stay safe online and save money while shopping. Besides, these help to keep you organized and focused. In addition, Microsoft Edge lets you know if your password-protected on the browser matches with those available in the list of leaked credentials. After that, it will prompt you to update your password. In this case, Password Monitor helps to scan for matches. For example, you have joined a bank recently and set up your online account, and it allows you to create a secure password to keep the account secured.

While checking out, Microsoft Edge helps save more money by applying coupons to the order. In addition, using the Sleeping tabs, you can keep the focus on current projects.

Chat Support from Microsoft Teams:

It is possible to attach the computer with any of your contacts. You can chat and do audio & video calling from iOS, Android, PC, or Mac. It enables you to stay on the call for up to a day. Therefore, you do not even need to drop and dial back in. It is one of the great windows 11 tips and tricks.

Touch, Voice, and Pen Inputs:

The digital pen, touchscreen, and voice typing feature help work more quickly than previously. For example, you can record your voice with your mobile and playback it to transcribe your words into text. In addition, your computer may have a microphone that can process your speech immediately using voice typing – text transcription.

In addition, it lets you detect inflection and rhythm for adding essential punctuation. The new version makes writing or drawing possible. Besides, it allows you to annotate PDFs. Moreover, it enables you to take the help of a digital pen to make the most of both worlds. It is possible to personalize the new Pen menu with favorite apps for quick access.

Conclusion:

Smartphones have become very handy nowadays for their touchscreens. But taking notes is not so simple. If the new version PC has a touchscreen, you can take notes instantly with a digital pen. In addition, the windows 11 tips and tricks allow you to use natural gestures like multi-finger gestures to navigate quickly.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • What cool things can it do?

These are a few hidden features of the updated version:

  • Multitasking features.
  • Background apps permission.
  • Clipboard history features.
  • Better security.
  • Manage volume for individual apps opened on a desktop.

 

  • Does it improve performance?

Compared to the earlier version, it can hold some potential to improve the PC speed.

  • What does it do differently?

It comes with a new design containing a centered Start menu and Taskbar. Besides, it brings a Mac-like interface to the OS. In addition, it comes in a clean design with rounded corners and pastel shades.

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Do It YourselfTechnology News

What is Flash Memory? How It Works?

What is Flash Memory? How It Works?

What is Flash memory?

Flash memory is a non-volatile storage memory. It is designed to erase and rewrite or re-program at the byte level easily. It is a special type of floating gate memory. Each memory chip holds plenty of flash memory cell units. It is based on electrically erasable programmable read-only memory called EEPROM. Flash memory is a unique type of EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) designed for high speed and with high density. It typically consists of large erase blocks (Greater than 512 bytes) and with not less than 10 000 writing cycles. It stores a large amount of data in a small area using stacked memory cells. The density of the memory cells is increased significantly to cater to the demand for storing more data in a small area.

The primary limitation of Flash memory is that it can do a relatively smaller number of write cycles in a specific block. In 1980 Toshiba, a Japanese company, invented it. A Flash memory gadget consists of several flash memory chips and a controller chip.

Types of Flash Memory:

There are two types of flash memory. They are:

  • NOR Flash memory (NOR Flash, the correlation between the bit line and the word lines resembles a NOR gate)
  • NAND Flash memory (NAND flash, the correlation between the bit line and the word lines resembles a NAND gate)

They are named after the logic gates they use in writing and rewriting. They use the cell design consisting of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor in a floating gate. Both of them differ in many aspects, including circuit level. Microcontrollers also use it for writing and executing firmware. The NAND memory is typically significantly smaller in size. As a result, they may be erased, rewritten, and read in blocks. At the same time, NOR memory allows a single machine word to be erased, rewritten, or read in a location independently.

NAND type memory is used in memory cards, old model solid-state drives, mobile phones, and USB flash drives. NOR memory is also used to store more critical configuration data in various digital products, battery-operated Static RAM. Their purpose is to work as general storage and transfer of data.

How It Works:

Flash Memory CellIt comes with inbuilt solid-state chips. In addition, each chip has an array of flash memory cells.

Flash memory uses electrical circuits to log data. The current flows through the transistor between each cell source and drain. The transistor regulates the path and functions as an on-off switch or gate.

The transistor allows current to flow across the cell at the ON position, which stores binary code “1”. At the OFF position, the transistor blocks the current flow and stores the value “0”.

Flash Memory is used in computers, handheld Pcs, personal digital assistants, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, synthesizers, video games, medical and scientific instrumentation, and robots. Its memory latency is significantly less, and it has a fast read access time. On the other hand, it is comparatively slow compared to ROM or RAM. It has high mechanical shock resistance and is therefore used in some portable devices vulnerable to mechanical shock. Flash memories have a significant advantage over other non-flash EEPROM. It has large block sizes.

Flash EEPROM:

Furthermore, their erase cycles are very much slow. Therefore erasing large blocks gives it a good speed advantage while writing bulk data. Comparatively, Flash EEPROM costs much less than the byte programmable EEPROM.

It is significantly employed in non-volatile solid-state storage. Using die stacking of three-dimensional integrated circuits in vertical interconnection, flash memory packages can be raised to the capacity of up to 1 TB. It needs at least 16 vertically connected stacked dies with one integrated flash controller inside the package to get the storage capacity of one tebibyte (240 Bytes)

Early History:

The idea of flash memory was started to develop from the origin of FGMOS or floating gate transistors, which are used in floating gate memory cells. Earlier, the EPROM and EEPROM were included in the floating gate memory. However, it requires a lot of manpower to build a memory cell for each bit of data, which is expensive and more time-consuming.

In 1980 Fujio Masuoka, working at Toshiba, designed a type of floating gate memory that erases the entire section of memory very easily in lesser time. He applied voltage to a wire-connected group of cells in the memory. It leads to the invention of flash memory. The name Flash was recommended by Shoji Ariizumi. In 1984 they invented NOR Flash and then NAND flash in 1987.

Unfortunately, when Masuoka presented it at the annual International Electronics Developers Meeting in 1984, the world of American scientists saw it as a threat. So Toshiba launched the NAND flash memory in 1987. One year later, Intel launched its NOR flash chip memory.

NOR Type Memory:

NOR-type memory has a long write and erase time. However, it provides full address and data buses allowing random access to memory location. Therefore NOR-type memory is suitable for the replacement of ROM Chips. Programs stored in ROM very rarely need to be updated. So it is a better replacement for ROM, which stores such programs in BIOS, the firmware of set-top boxes. It can be used to a maximum of 100,000 erase cycles. Initially, the Compact Flash was based on NOR, and it later moved on to NAND to control the price.

NAND Type Memory:

NAND flash has lesser erase and write time. In addition, it requires less chip area per cell. Therefore it has a higher storage density and lower cost than the NOR flash. However, the disadvantage is that the I/O interface of NAND flash does not possess a random-access external address bus.

Therefore Data must be read on a block-wise basis with block size varying from hundreds to thousands of bits. This makes the NAND flash unsuitable for the replacement of ROM since most of the processors and microcontrollers require byte-level random access. Therefore NAND flash is best suitable for secondary storage devices such as hard disks and optical media. It is best suited for mass storage devices such as SSD and memory cards. They will have multiple inbuilt NAND flash memory chips.

Due to the latest technological advancement, the memory density of NAND flash is highly improved and commercialized.

Charge Trap Flash (CTF):

CTF is a semiconductor memory technology used to create non-volatile NOR and NAND flash memory. It is another type of floating gate MOSFET memory technology. The conventional floating gate technology uses polycrystalline silicon film to store electrons, but the CTF doped the conventional technology using polycrystalline silicon as a floating gate structure and replaced it with silicon nitride film.

CTF replaced Poly-silicon floating gate technology. CTF is sandwiched between blocking gate oxide above and a tunneling oxide below it, with an electrically insulating silicon nitride layer. The silicon nitride layer traps electrons. This CTF technology provides better data retention with zero electron leakage. Conversely, the electrons become more excited with increasing temperatures; therefore, electrons leakage may happen at a higher temp.

Tunneling:

However, Charge Trap Flash still uses a tunneling oxide and blocking layer, which are the two negatives of that technology. The Blocking layer may get damaged due to anode Hot Hole Injection, and the tunnel oxide may get damaged due to the extremely high electric fields. Therefore the oxides must be unsalted against the electrons to prevent the electron leaking, which may lead to data loss. With increasing wear of oxides, the data retention may go down. Furthermore, the degradation of oxides may directly affect the endurance of the memory since the oxides lose their insulating characteristics as they degrade. In 1991, the NEC scientists implemented Flash Memory with the charge trap method.

Later in 1998, NROM flash memory technology was introduced. They replaced the traditional floating gates with a charge trapping layer in conventional flash memory design. In 2002 Vertical NAND technology-based flash memory cells started using 3D charge trap flash technology vertically within the chip. Toshiba introduced 3D V- NAND technology, and the first device implemented 3D V- NAND with 24 layers came to the market in 2013.

3D IC (3D Integrated Circuit) Technology:

This technology loads IC chips vertically into a single 3D IC chip package. Next, Toshiba introduced 3D IC into NAND flash memory. Later in 2010, 3D ICs came into widespread commercial utilization and use of NAND memory in mobile gadgets. Then in 3D V-NAND with eight stacks, 64 layers came to the market.

Flash Memory Working Principle:

Flash memory has an array of memory cells made from floating-gate transistors in which Data is stored. In single-level cell memory devices, each cell stores only one bit of information, whereas in Multi-level cells, including TLC, data can be stored more than one bit per cell. Besides, there are two types of floating gates, namely conductive and non-conductive. In Floating Gate, polysilicon is employed in both conductive and non-conductive.

Floating Gate MOSFET:

MOSFETIn flash memory, each cell resembles MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor). However, it varies with the MOSFET transistor gate. MOSFET has only one gate, whereas the other has two gates. Each cell works as an electrical switch in which current flows between source and drain. Further, it is controlled by a floating gate and a control gate. The control gate functions similar to the gate in the MOS transistor. But below the control gate, a floating gate is placed. The floating gate is insulated entirely using an oxide layer. The floating gate is placed between the control gate and the MOSFET channel.

Since the insulating oxide layer electrically isolates the floating gate, the electrons held within them are trapped.

How Data is Stored:

When the floating gate is charged with electrons, the increase in charge screens the electric field from the control gate, increasing the cell’s threshold voltage (VT1).

Therefore, a higher voltage (VT2) must now be applied to the control gate to make the channel conductive. In order to read the binary value from the transistor, an intermediate voltage between the threshold voltages must be applied to the control gate.

If any of the channels conduct at this intermediate voltage, the floating gate must be uncharged (if the floating gate is charged, the intermediate voltage will be less than VT2 conduction will not happen. Further, if the conduction happens, then logical “1” is stored in the gate; if the channel does not conduct at the intermediate voltage, it implies the floating gate is charged, and therefore a logical “0” is stored in the gate. The presence of “0” or “1” is identified by determining where there is current flowing through the memory transistor when the intermediate voltage is asserted on the control gate.

In Multi Level Cell Device:

Data can be stored more than a bit per cell in a multi-level cell device. Therefore the amount of current flow is sensed to identify the level of charge on the floating gate. There is an electrically insulated tunnel oxide layer between the floating gate and the silicon; therefore, the gate floats above the silicon. Moreover, the oxide layer keeps the electrons confined to the floating gate. In the long run, degradation or wear may occur due to the extremely high electric field experienced by the oxide. This high voltage density can break atomic bonds overtime on the relatively thin oxide coating. Thereby it gradually loses its insulating properties and allows the trapped electrons to move freely, resulting in electron leak from the floating gate, which may lead to data loss.

What is Fowler Nordheim Tunneling?

Fowler Nordheim Tunneling is the process of moving free electrons from the control gate and into the floating gate. By doing so, we are changing the characteristics of the cell by increasing the MOSFET’s threshold voltage. In turn, it changes the source current that flows thro’ the transistor for a given gate voltage; it is used to encode the binary value to the cell. Fowler Nordheim Tunneling is a reversible process; therefore, electrons can be added to or removed from the floating gate. Adding or removing the electrons from the floating gate is known as writing and erasing.

 Internal Charge Pumps:

To erase and program, it needs high voltages, but the latest flash chips require a single supply voltage, and they produce high voltages of their own using the on-chip charge pumps. The charge pump is similar to DC to DC converter that uses capacitors to raise the voltage. With simple circuits, the charge pumps can do high erasing voltages. However, the charge pumps may fail in high radiation environments.

NOR Flash:

NOR FlashEach cell in the NOR Flash’s one end is directly grounded, and the other end is connected directly to the bit line. This arrangement behaves as the NOR gate. While one of the word lines connected to the control gate is brought high, the relative storage transistor will pull the output bit line low. For embedded applications that require distinct non-volatile memory, the NOR Flash suits best. Their low read latencies allow both direct code execution and data storage in single memory products.

The default state of the single level NOR-Flash cell is logically equal to the binary value 1. Since the current flow through the channel by applying the appropriate voltage to the control gate, the bit line voltage is pulled down. NOR flash memory cell can be programmed or set to a binary value of 0 by following the steps:

Apply elevated voltage to the control gate

Now the channel is turned on, and electrons can flow through the source to the drain

The source-drain current is sufficiently high to make some high-energy electrons jump through the insulating layer onto the floating gate.

NOR ErasaingA high reverse polarity voltage is applied between the control gate and source terminal to erase the NOR-Flash cell and pulls the electrons off the floating gate through quantum tunneling. The latest model NOR chips are divided into multiple erase segments called blocks or sectors. The erasing operation can be done block-wise. Moreover, all the cells in the erase segment will be erased altogether. The Programming of NOR cells is done one word or byte at a time.

NAND Flash:

NAND flash uses floating-gate transistors connected in the same way as NAND gate. Several transistors are connected in series. Further, the bit line is pulled low if all the word line is pulled high above the VT. In addition, this group is connected through some additional transistors to a NOR style bit line array in the same method as a single transistor linked in NOR flash.

Replacing single transistors with serially linked group add more level of addressing. Due to serially linked transistors, NAND flash can address it by pages, word, and bit, whereas the NOR flash memory can address by word. This bit-level addressing best suits bit-serial applications such as hard disk emulation, which can access only one bit at a time.

To read data, the desired group is first selected in a similar way the NOR array selects. Then most of the word links are pulled up above the VT of the programmed bit when one of them is pulled up to just over the VT of an erased bit. Even though there are additional transistors, a reduction in the number of ground wires and bit lines allows a tightly packed layout with higher storage capacity per chip. Besides, the NAND flash is generally permitted to contain certain number of faults. The latest models are more compact since the manufacturers are maximizing usable storage by minimizing the size of the transistors.

NAND Writing and Erasing:

Tunnel injection and Tunnel release are used for writing and erasing in NAND flash. It is used in removable USB devices called USB flash drives. Besides, most memory cards and solid-state drives have NAND flash type.

The NAND flash structure starts from cell level to strings, then pages, blocks, planes, and a die. A string is a series of connected cells in which the source of one cell is connected to the drain of the neighboring cell. Generally, the NAND string consists of 32 to 128 NAND cells. Besides, strings are organized into multiple pages. Further, the pages are organized into blocks in which each string is connected to an individual line called a bit line.

The cells, which are in the same position in a string, are connected through the control gate by a word line or WL. In addition, the plane contains a definite number of blocks that are connected through the same bit line or BL. Moreover, the Die consists of one or more planes connected by the circuit wiring that needs to do the read, write and erase functions.

In NAND flash, the data can be read and programmed in pages typically between the size of 4KiB and 16KiB. However, it can be erased only on the entire block level, consisting of multiple pages.

How Flash Memory Read and Write:

When a page is erased, all the cells in the blocks are logically set to “1”. Any cell that has been set to “0” by programming can be reset to “1” only by erasing the entire block. New data can be fed into a page; if the page already contains any data, then the current content of the page plus the new data will be copied to a new erased page. Further, if a page is available to copy then, the data will be written to it immediately.

If no erased page is there, then an entire block should be erased before copying the data to a page in that block. The old page will be marked invalid, and it is available for erasing and reusing. To prevent early failure in the page, the controller meant for wear leveling ensure all blocks are used equally. The data will be moved to one of the least used pages. If the repeated failure occurs when erasing the block, that block is marked as bad and will not be used further. Flash memories are built with excess spare blocks; they can handle the bad blocks easily.

In V-NAND, memory cells are stacked vertically, and it uses a charge trap flash architecture. The vertical layers allow larger bit densities without requiring smaller individual cells.

Structure:

V- NAND uses a charge trap flash that stores the charge on an embedded silicon nitride film, and it is purposely made thicker to hold a large number of electrons. It warps the planar charge trap cells in a cylindrical form. In 3D NAND floating gate, the memory cells are entirely isolated from one another, but in Charge Trap, the 3D NAND, vertical groups of memory cells share the same silicon nitride materials.

Every memory cell is made up of one planar polysilicon layer containing a hole filled by multiple concentric vertical cylinders. These holes act as gate electrodes. The outer-most silicon dioxide cylinder acts as the gate dielectric, enclosing a silicon nitride that stores the charge.

The memory cells in different vertical layers do not interfere with each other. The vertical collection is electrically similar to the configured series linked group. As a result, the V-NAND Flash is double time faster than the conventional NAND.

Flash Memory Limitations:

The flash memory can read or programmed a word or a byte at a time in a random access fashion, but it can be erased only on, by blocks. Once erased, all bits in the block will be 1. Any cell within the block can be programmed in a freshly erased block. Once any cell bit has been set to 0 to change it back to 1, we need to erase the entire block.

The NOR flash offers random access, read, and programming operations, but it will not offer a random-access rewrite or erase function. But a location can, however, be rewritten as the new value “0” bits are the superset of the overwritten values.

The data structure cannot be updated completely, but it can be removed, marking them invalid.

Each cell may hold more than one bit in multi-level cells, so this technique may need to be modified.

Memory cards and USB flash drives are only block-level interfaces or flash translation layers. It helps to control write to a different cell each time to control the wear level of the device. In addition, it prevents incremental writing within a block.

Memory wear- It has a finite number of program erase cycles

A flash memory without wear leveling will not last for long. If there is no wear leveling, every write to a previously written block will be first read, erased, modified, and rewritten in the same location, and it will consume more time and wear out quickly. Besides, the other locations will not be used at all in the entire life cycle.

The X-ray can erase the program bits.

The memories that have to go through a large number of programming cycles cannot be a flash memory unit.

NOR Memories Management:

The reading method may cause nearby cells in the same memory block to change over time in NAND memory. It is called read disturb. If reading continuously from one particular cell, that will not fail but the surrounding cells on a subsequent read. The flash controller will count the total number of reads to a block since the last erase to overcome the read disturb issue. When the count exceeds the target limit, the block is copied over a new block, erased, and released the block pool. The new after-erase is fine as the original block. If the flash controller is not function and intervenes in time, the Read Disturb Error will occur with some data loss if the errors are many.

The NOR memory has an external address bus for Reading and Programming. The Reading and writing are done on page-wise, and erasing and unlocking are done on block-wise. But in NOR, Reading and writing is at random access, and unlocking and erasing are done block-wise.

The reading process in NOR- Flash is similar to reading from RAM by providing the address and data bus mapped correctly. With this feature, the processors can use the NOR memory as execute in place memory. The programs stored in NOR flash can be executed directly from the NOR without the need of copying from the RAM first. The NOR flash can be programmed in a random-access manner similar in Reading. The block sizes are 64, 128, or 256 KiB. The latest NOR chips come with Bad Block Management. It is controlled by the device driver controlling the memory chips that handle the blocks that wear out. A typical NOR Flash does not need an error correction code, and they have very slow writing speed when compared to NAND chips.

NAND Flash Memories:

The ECC will correct a one-bit error in every 2048 bits using 22 bits of ECC. Even if ECC cannot correct the error during the read, it can detect and point out the error. For example, during Erasing, the device can detect the blocks that fail to erase and mark them as bad. Then the data can be written to the different blocks, and the bad block map will be updated, including the present bad block. Generally, NAND flashes are shipped from the manufacturer with some bad blocks.

Moreover, they are marked as bad blocks according to the bad block marking strategy. NAND is best suited for the systems which require high volume data storage. It offers higher density with greater capacity at a lesser cost. It is swift to erase, sequential write, and read.

NAND standardization:

ONFI is a consortium of technology companies developed to standardize the low-level interface for NAND flash chips. Its objective is to make it easier to switch between NAND chips from various producers to develop NAND products at a lower cost. In addition, it ensures interoperability between the NAND devices from various vendors.

It specifies the following:

Standard  pinout for NAND devices

Standard set of commands for reading, writing, and erasing

A fault-free mechanism for self-identification similar to SPD (serial presence detection)

Difference between NOR and NAND:

  • The connection to the individual memory cells varies.
  • The interface for reading and writing the respective memories are different.
  • The NAND allows only page access, whereas the NOR allows random access.
  • Nor Cells are larger than the NAND cells since they need separate metal contact for each cell.
  • NOR flash cells are connected in parallel, and NAND flash cells are connected in series.
  • The series connection occupies less space than the parallel one. Therefore NAND flash is cheaper than the NOR.
  • With the series connection and removal of word-line contacts, a large grid of NAND flash cells occupy lesser space when neither compared with NOR cells.
  • The cost of the NAND cell can be further reduced by removing the external address and data bus circuits. Instead, the external device can communicate with the cells through sequentially accessed commands and data registers.
  • NAND flash can replace the mechanical hard disk, whereas NOR flash can replace the ROMs.
  • Write endurance of NOR flash is typically greater than NAND flash.
  • The 3D NAND performance may degrade if more layers are added.

Flash File System:

It is a file system designed to store the files on flash memory-based storage devices and gadgets. Though it is similar to the file system in general, it is optimized for the nature and characteristics of the flash memory. It can avoid write amplification. Write amplification is an undesired phenomenon associated with it.

Write Amplification:

In flash memory, it must be erased before it should be rewritten. The erase operation is more delicate and complicated than the write operation. While writing or rewriting, it needs to do moving user data and Metadata more than once. The rewriting process requires an already used portion of Flash to be read and updated, and written to a new location together with the initially erased location if it was used at some point of time.

Due to the nature of its working, a much larger portion of Flash must be erased and rewritten than the actually required amount of data. As a result, it multiplies and increases the number of write requests tremendously. Therefore it shortens the reliable operation time. Besides, it increases the bandwidth of the flash memory, which directly affects the random write performance. On the other hand, reads do not require an erase of the memory. Therefore, they will not be affected by write amplification, but the read disturbs error may happen in that block that is going to read and rewrite.

Error Corrections:

We know the Data is written on memory at the page level, which is made up of multiple cells. But the memory can only be erased in larger units called blocks that are made up of multiple pages. If the data in some of the pages of a block are no longer needed, then the pages with good data in that block are read and rewritten into another previously erased vacant block. The free pages with the stale data are available now for new data writing.

This process is named as garbage collection. It is best used with a controller to do Wear Leveling and Error Correction that is specially designed for flash file systems to overcome these issues. The basic concept is that when the flash storage is updated, the file system of the memory will write a new copy of the changed data to a new block and re-map the file pointer, then erase the old block later when it has time.

The memory cards, SSDs, and USB flash drives have inbuilt controllers to perform the error corrections and wear leveling.

The file system is optimized to handle erasing the blocks. As a result, flash memories devices impose no seek latency. In addition, flash file systems are designed to spread out writes evenly to avoid wear leveling.

Flash Memory Capacity:

More chips are often dying stacked to achieve higher capacities in most of the devices. The flash memory is made of interrogated circuits and techniques; increasing the capacity of flash chips is always following Moore’s law. However, in the latest devices, after introducing 3 D NAND scaling, Moore’s law is no longer applicable since the tiny transistors are no longer used. Typically the size of the memory capacity is expressed in multiple powers of 2s, Such as 4 GB, 512MB, etc. The capacity available for file usage is slightly lesser than the size expressed. It is due to the space occupied by the file system Metadata.

The memory chips are sized in strict binary multiples. It is considerably larger than the labeled capacity. But some space is occupied and allotted for distribution of Write Wear Leveling, Sparing, Error Correction codes, metadata, and internal firmware.

Transfer Rates:

Flash memory is much faster at Reading than at writing. Further, its performance depends on the storage controller. The work of the storage controller is critical when the storage is partially full. The absence of any appropriate controller can result in degraded speeds.

Applications of Flash Memory:

Serial Flash:

It is a tiny low powered flash memory that can only provide serial access to the data instead of addressing the individual bytes. It reads or writes a large closest group of bytes in the address space serially. The serial peripheral interface bus protocol is used to access the data. When serial Flash is included into an embedded system, it requires only very few wires on the printed circuit board than the parallel flash memory. It transmits and receives Data only one bit at a time. It allows a reduction in board space, power consumption, and total system cost.

Elimination of bond pads permits more compact and elegant ICs on smaller die. It, in turn, helps increase the number of dies on a wafer. And thereby minimize the cost per Die. Furthermore, it eliminates the number of external pins used and thereby reduces the packaging and assembly expense. As a result, a serial flash drive device can occupy lesser space than a parallel-connected flash device.

Less number of pins occupies a lesser PCB area and minimizes the overall size. Further lesser number of pins simplifies the PCB routing.

There are two types of serial peripheral interface (SPI) flash types. The first type is of all small pages that have only one or more internal SRAM page buffers allowing a complete page to read the buffer and partially modified and then write back. The second one has larger sectors. These types do not have an internal SRAM buffer. Therefore complete page must be read out and modified before being written back, making it slow to manage. The second type is cheaper. Unfortunately, these two types do not have the same pinout; they are incompatible and not exchangeable.

Firmware Storage:

Modern Central Processing Units are of higher speed, but the parallel flash devices are often much slower than the memory bus of the motherboard they are connected to. The modern DDR2 SDRAM offers access times much below than 20 nanoseconds. So it is more advantageous to allow the shadow code stored in Flash into RAM. For that, the shadow code is copied from Flash into RAM before execution so that it may access it at full speed. The device’s firmware is stored in the serial flash device and then copied to the RAM when the device is powered up. Using a serial flash device is better than using the onboard chip flash removes the need for significant process compromise.

Flash Memory as Hard Drive Replacement:

One of the most recent developments in flash memory applications is that it is treated as a replacement for hard disks. When compared, it does not have the mechanical limitations and latencies of the hard drive. Therefore the Solid-state drive is better when considering the speed, noise, power consumption, and reliability. Now they are used as a substitute for the hard drives in high-performance desktops.

The cost per gigabyte of flash memory is significantly higher when compared to the hard disks. The deleted files on SSDs can remain for a long time before being overwritten by the fresh data. The software or erasing techniques have no effect on SSDs. Using the TRIM command, the solid-state drives can mark the logical block addresses of the deleted files as unused to enable garbage collection. Even data recovery software cannot restore the files deleted in such a way.

The Archival or Long Term Storage:

The floating gate transistors in the storage device hold the charges that represent the data. However, this charge gradually leaks over time. That will lead to more logical errors that are known as bit rot or bit fading. It is not clear how long the Data on the flash memory will stay secured under archival conditions. The retention span varies with the model and type of storage. When connected to the power and staying idle, the charge of the transistors that hold the Data is routinely refreshed by the storage firmware. Therefore the ability to retain data will be affected by the following factors such as data redundancy and error correction algorithms.

Scalability:

Due to its simple design and structure and high demand, NAND flash memory is the most belligerently scaled technology. Due to high demand and competition on the higher capacity flash drives, they are shrinking the floating gate MOSFET design rule. As a result, the MOSFET feature size of the cells reaches a 15 to 16nm limit, and the density increases to 3 bits per cell combined with the vertical stacking of NAND memory planes.

 

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How to Ping a Phone?

How to Ping a Phone?

As a mobile user, you may want to find the location of someone’s mobile like your kid, any employee, etc. Besides, you may need to check if your mobile is active or getting network connectivity. You can ping a phone in this case. Have you faced such a situation? You will be glad to hear that many ways help you hence. The process is known as ‘pinging a phone.’ In this article, you will learn how to ping a phone.

What does it mean to Ping a Mobile Phone?

Pinging a device indicates knowing the device’s location that you want to check. Almost all major operating systems are compatible with this network utility, and Android, iOS, and other operating systems support this feature.

Technically, ping means a signal to the mobile querying about its network location. Then, the mobile will respond to the request with the required details. This technology takes the help of the device’s GPS location.

Use-cases for Pinging a Phone:

Its primary purpose is to find the location of the mobile. However, there are a few reasons why you may want to find the location of a mobile.

  • It enables you to find the location of a phone you have lost or stolen.
  • Using the technology, you can watch your kid’s or employee’s location.
  • You can keep people with a criminal record.
  • Spy apps are used to perform the operations. You should know that spying on someone is illegal without their will.

How does pinging a phone technology work?

Two methods are there to locate a cell phone location by the cellular network provider— Pinging and Triangulation. The first is a digital method, whereas the second is an analog method to find a device location.

To “ping” indicates sending a signal to a specific mobile phone and getting a response with the requested data. While pinging a new digital mobile, it will determine the latitude and longitude through GPS, and then, it will send the coordinates back through the SMS system.

Why ping a mobile?

People use modern technology to find the location of a stolen or lost Android or iPhone device. Likewise, using the technology, you can track the live locations of criminal people.

Besides, the android spy app companies use the technology to keep track of users’ devices. So guardians who are willing to keep track of their kids’ location can use different spy apps.

However, without the person’s permission, spying on them or tracking a device’s location is illegal. So it would be best if you let the person know, like your kid, about using the technology before installing any spy apps.

How to Ping a Phone?

How to Ping a Phone?Multiple mobiles are there supporting the ping functionality. But mobiles released currently don’t come with the feature enabled. Therefore, if you are willing to ping the devices, you will require specialized apps on the mobile. PingD, Google Find My Phone, etc., are a few examples helping to return the ping request. Therefore, you should ensure that you have the apps installed and configured on the system before you proceed. Besides, remember that you cannot ping a mobile that is turned off. However, having a firewall installed on the system does not allow other devices to ping the mobile. Besides, if the AP Isolation feature is turned on the router, other devices may not work.

Ping from a Phone:

  • It would be best to launch the App Store or Play Store first. Then, look for Ping.
  • After that, you need to ping any app that you want. Of course, as soon as you install the app, it would be best to launch it.
  • After that, your job is to put the IP of the mobile. For example, you can enter 192.168.8.101 if it is the IP address. Next, tap on the Ping or Start option.

Use command prompt:

The process is applicable with Android mobiles only. Your first task is to tap on the ‘Windows’ key plus the ‘R’ option for opening the ‘Run’ box. Next, write ‘cmd’ in lowercase letters for bringing up the command prompt. Next, you should write ‘ipconfig,’ and tap on the ‘Enter’ option after that. It offers you the machine’s IP address if it is not available.

When you go to the following line of the command prompt, you must write ‘ping’ there. After that, you should complete the IP address of the mobile to get a ping to the mobile automatically. If it is successful, both the ping and a minimum of 2-3 lines of ‘Reply from’ the address appears. Every line represents a data packet that was sent.

It is a speedy process giving the actual data packets sent to the phone, not the technical ping only. Whether you face a problem, you should try to close the PC or mobile and reboot your wireless router. The issue may be an IP address error. Hence, the process helps send a ping only, and it won’t get any details about the user’s physical location.

GPS tracking software:

It is the quickest way to find a stolen android or iPhone mobile. With the help of GPS tracking software, you can track the location of your family and loved ones. Multiple GPS tracking software is available in free and paid versions. In addition, we have given a few GPS tracking software that helps you ping the device’s location.

  1. GOOGLE MAPS:

It is one of the effective GPS tracking apps for android and iPhone devices that help to find the device location. You can use the application for free for both android and iPhone devices. It allows you to adjust the sharing options. With the help of the latest technology, you can track the lost device’s location.

  1. LIFE 360:

This GPS tracking software lets you ping a phone to find its location. It has plenty of excellent features that help to find the lost device. Besides, it helps to track the location of your family members. Apart from this, many location tracking software is available on iPhone and Android OSs.

With the help of GPS tracking apps, you can find the live location of any device. But it is not possible if GPS is disabled on the device or you have installed fake GPS on the mobile.

Default phone mechanisms:

Take the help of the default mechanism of your mobile phone if the GPS location is disabled. It will help you to ping your mobile to find out the device’s location. Generally, android devices have a default feature called “Find My Device,” whereas iPhone devices have an inbuilt feature called Find My iPhone to track the device location.

The steps you should follow to use Find My Device are as follows:-

  • Your first task is to visit the site android.com/find.
  • Then, you should log in to your Google Account via Gmail details.
  • After that, while using the map, the live location of the device you want to find out will appear.
  • If you are willing, play a ringtone, delete the data, or lock the lost device remotely.

Spy Apps:

You can use a spy app to ping a mobile to know where it is. These apps are equipped with excellent and advanced features to monitor the lost mobile or that you want to track.

These enable you to use android and iPhone devices. The apps help track any person’s live location, read conversations, monitor social media chats, check browser history, record screens, listen to live phone calls & surrounding sounds, etc.

You can find multiple spy apps available in the market, allowing you to track both Android and iPhone devices.

Follow the guide to know how to ping a mobile using spy Apps.

  • Your first job is to make a new account from an Android or iPhone device.
  • After that, your task is to choose the mobile you are willing to monitor and check your call history.
  • Now, you should choose the plan as per the requirements.
  • Next, you must install the application on the device you want.
  • As soon as you complete installing, you can experience Wi-Fi or GPS data in real-time.

Ping from computer:

Taking help from the PC, you can also find out the device you have lost. Then, you should undergo the steps given here to ping mobile using a PC.

  • First, your task is to move to the “Settings” on your android phone and open it after

that.

  • After that, your task is to click on the “About Phone” option.
  • Now, hit the option “Status,” and you should get the IP address.
  • After that, your job is to power on the computer and look for the Windows Command Prompt.
  • Next, you should open the CMD or command prompt as “Run as Administrator.”
  • Write “ping” followed by the IP address of the android device, and next, you should tap on the “Enter” option.

How to Ping a Phone in macOS System:

You can use the macOS system to ping the mobile. However, if you are willing to ping a mobile from macOS, you must follow the steps.

  • Your first job is to go to the Finder and open it on the Mac, followed by Applications. If not, you should tap on the Command and A key to get the list of apps available.
  • Tap two times on Utilities and after that on the Terminal app.
  • While opening the terminal app, you need to write ping followed by the IP address of the mobile. For example, suppose you can ping 192.168.2.1.
  • You can see the results similarly to the Windows system.

How to Ping a Phone from ChromeOS systems:

Use the ChromeOS system if you are willing for this purpose. This one is a Google-developed OS available on the PlayStore in Chrome OS. However, it is beneficial if you use the default command prompt app.

  • If you are willing to open the command prompt application on ChromeOS, you should tap on the link ctrl, alt, and T keys to open it up.
  • Write ping followed by the IP address of the device. Use 192.168.2.1 for pinging.
  • Tap on “Enter” to start connection tests and the results after the test.
  • Thus, you can ping a mobile from a system running Android or iOS.

Tracing the phone number details:

By tracing the details of a mobile number, you can find out the location of a sim number or a device. In addition, multiple apps can bring universal caller ID services to your mobile, enabling you to track the mobile number.

You can take the help of the famous mobile number tracking apps like True caller, Showcaller, CallApp. These allow you to check the sim card name, registered place, etc. It is beneficial in finding fraud caller, unknown caller location details, etc.

Take help from the phone’s carrier:

The last method is to take help from your mobile carrier by contacting them. As soon as you contact your mobile phone carrier company, they will help you to find out the mobile you have lost. They trace the live location using the triangulation process and find out the device.

How Can you prevent your location from being tracked?

A few people are unwilling to have their phone’s location traced. These are the ways to prevent the location from being tracked.

Power Off the GPS Location: You should disable the live location of your phone. Thus, you can vanish from live tracing software’s reach.

Power On The Airplane Mode: You can prevent your location from being tracked by enabling the Airplane mood. It does not allow the device to send signals to the closest GPS towers.

Power Off Your Phone Completely: You can power off the mobile and take out the battery. Thus, you can prevent all the software or tracking device from tracking the location.

Power Off Location Services In mobile Settings: Your first job is to move to the phone’s location settings and then disable them.

How to ping mobile location for free with a phone company?

You should know that all iPhone and Android devices come with a default trigger, and it enables you to return all data regarding location and GPS to the actual cell service provider.

An option is available under the “Location Services” tab in the settings section. The data will remain protected with the service provider until you use the service data given by your mobile provider.

While switching to another phone provider, they will have the authorization to track location and maintain its history.

Mobile companies have different phone towers around the area covered. Therefore, when you move, your mobile connects to every tower.

The companies can triangulate your position depending on the tower you join. It is vital to know that 911 operators and service station operators can access location software, enabling them to expedite operations and respond in an emergency. Therefore, these are legal processes using which companies can ping the mobile, and thus, they will know your location.

How can you ping your mobile, which has been switched off?

It is not possible to ping a switched-off phone. As soon as you power off the mobile, you cannot track your device. The reason is that the signals don’t interact more with nearby GPS towers. Thus, it stops letting other devices know where it is. In this case, you can know the last active location of the mobile.

However, a few rates cases always exist. For example, you can detect signals from any switched-off mobile in war zones using NASA technologies. However, the details of these operations remain unknown. As per a report, NASA helped previously to find out the location of people. Usually, there is no way to track a closed mobile.

How to ping a cell phone tower in ping a mobile?

If you are willing to trace the original location of the last cell tower giving the signal to the kid’s phone, you need to ping the mobile. Using a wireless carrier, you can do the job. However, it is not legal to ping a mobile phone not registered to you if you don’t approve it.

Phase 1:

You should first contact the wireless carrier’s customer service department. After that, you should go through the prompts to speak to a representative.

Phase 2:

Let the representative know about your intention to ping the phone or the mobile registered in your account.

Phase 3:

You need to verify the wireless account while asked. In this case, you need to give the representative the mobile you are willing to ping.

Phase 4:

Wait till the representative is not pinging your mobile. Then, it may give you instructions to enroll in a mobile pinging service of your wireless carrier, enabling you to ping the mobile without assistance.

Phase 5:

You should note down the pinged location as soon as it appears.

How to find a lost iPhone:

Use Find My:

Using the Find My app, you can track the location of the Apple products, and it helps to find out the mobile on the map. While using Find My, you can easily know where the mobile is, and you don’t need to ping it. However, if you know that your iPhone is in your home but do not know where it is, the pinging will help you.

Launch the Find My there if an Apple device is attached to a similar Apple ID like iPhone. Otherwise, if you are willing, sign in to icloud.com and then select “Find iPhone.” If you want, select the iPhone from the list and then hit the “Play Sound” option to ping. Firstly, your device will start vibrating. After a while, it starts playing a high-pitched sound. The sound is playing continuously till you will not find your iPhone. Remember that you can stop the sound using the Find My device.

Use An Apple Watch:

Pinging becomes easier while iPhone and Apple Watch have a connection between them. It is very simple, like swiping up on the Apple Watch to the Glances mode. Choose the “ping” button available under other options such as airplane mode, do not disturb, and silent mode. It lets your mobile emit a high-pitched sound.

In addition, you can give instructions to your mobile to blink the LED by tapping the “ping” button and holding it. You may use the feature to find the mobile in a dark room.

Use Siri:

Take the help of Siri if you have any other iOS 12+ device attached to the account. It may be another mobile, iPad, PC, or Apple watch. If you are willing to use Siri, ensure that you have turned on Find My and Siri. Call Siri, and you will get a reply from her. As soon as she replies, you should say, “Siri, find my iPhone.”

Whether many devices are connected to the account, you must specify your mobile. Then, Siri will ask if you are willing to play a sound on the mobile to find out.

You should say “Yes.” Next, you will get an option to see a visual map of the location of the mobile.

From the Cloud:

If you don’t have many Apple devices, there might not exist a simple way to access Siri or the Find My app. If necessary, use a device of another person or your non-Apple device to sign in to iCloud, and it will help you to ping your missing iPhone.

If you are willing to do this, go to this www.icloud.com/find site and log in using your Apple ID and password. After that, your task is to choose the mobile you are willing to find from the list of devices. Then, you should tap on the “play sound” to ping the iPhone.

Whether you have enabled the two-factor authentication and want to log in to the Apple account from an unrecognized device, you should use a 6-digit verification code to bypass the two-factor authentication.

Conclusion:

If you have mistakenly lost your Android or iPhone, these hacks will help you find your mobile phone successfully. We hope that you will know now how to ping a phone.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Can you Ping mobile for location?

You cannot ping a mobile number directly without access to the carrier’s system, indicating that it has limitations to carriers and is within range.

  • Is it illegal to ping a cell phone?

A few federal laws are there applicable to cell phone pings. According to the regulations, you can make one thing clear tracing the mobile of someone without their permission is against the law. You can do this only in a criminal investigation or emergency 911 call.

  • Can a private investigator ping the cell phone?

As per federal law, private investigators are not allowed to monitor mobile conversations without the permission of at least one person based on the state.

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Memory Card: Complete Guide to Memory Cards

Memory Card: Complete Guide to Memory Cards

If you are willing to expand storage in your mobile, tablet, camera, or any handheld gaming system, the memory card is the card that you should use. There are many options available in the market, due to which you may feel confused. You should pinpoint the type, storage capacity, read/write speed, etc. Besides, you should know whether the card comes with data protection capabilities or not.

The best memory card always contains an adapter. Therefore, while you will buy this, you can find an adapter. The adaptors allow the devices to work with various types of memory cards. Some devices are available in the market, enabling you to use two types of memory cards or more. It is why you should figure out the best one that suits you most. This article contains the best memory card on the market, and it will help you select the suitable one for you.

What is a memory card?

A memory card is a storage device used to store digital data and electronic information using flash memory. It is a form of flash memory used in electronic gadgets like digital cameras or video game consoles. In addition, it helps store information, pictures, songs, saved games, other PC files, etc. Flash memory devices don’t have any moving parts, due to which these are not going to be damaged so easily.

What does a memory card do?

A memory card is used mainly for adding digital storage to a device. You only have to insert a small plastic rectangle item containing memory chips, and it can store files for a long time. People use the additional memory to expand the phone’s storage and keep videos, images, apps, audio files, games, etc.

How do memory cards work?

You should know first that a memory card is a typical device made of a plastic case & metal connectors. It contains many different technologies like flash memory, a controller, and other parts, and the latter quality determines both speed and quality.

File Allocation Table or FAT helps to arrange Memory card file locations. The files will not be erased while you delete any picture or data. It is the record from the table of contents, which is deleted. It indicates that your PC or other electronic devices cannot show the file location in a folder. However, the File you have deleted is still available on the memory card. You should know that these data remain stored on the memory card till you are not overwriting this. Therefore, if you have mistakenly erased the essential files, you should stop using this instantly. You can recover the deleted information with specialized software.

How do I use my memory card for storage?

If you find your mobile not prompting automatically, you should try the steps.

  • First, your job is to put your SD card on the Android mobile. Then, you should wait for this to be recognized.
  • Navigate to the Settings, and then move to the Storage section.
  • After that, your task is to click on the name of the SD card.
  • You can see three vertical dots available on the top right corner of your mobile display. Click on the dots.
  • Hit Storage Settings.
  • You are required to choose “Format” as an internal option.
  • Next, your job is to click on the Erase & Format at the prompt. At last, your Android device enables you to migrate the data.

Memory card sizes:

Generally, the memory card is available in 8GB, 16GB, 32GB, 64GB, and 128GB capacities. In addition, a few high-capacity cards are available, which can hold terabytes (TB) of data.

When you choose the best one to buy, the first thing you should note is their amount of storage. In short words, you can say this memory size. In some years, the memory sizes have boosted remarkably. Previously, 1GB size was enough for people, whereas 128 GB is not uncommon in recent times.

What types of devices need memory cards?

Nintendo Wii and devices that are similar to this use SD cards. The cards took off as the storage medium while photography, with cameras dispensing and film rolls.

Like digital cards, people use memory cards in smartphones to store data (images and music), camcorders for storing video, etc.

These are used in televisions, portable game devices, printers, DVD recorders, and other electronic devices. Plenty of televisions even has card slots that enable you to see any stored images on a big display. A few printers will allow you to print directly the pictures stored on a card.

It is possible to swap cards from one product to another. However, you should know that different devices use different memory card types. Whether there is a Memory Card in your device already, and you want to buy more gear, ensure that the card is similar.

Types of memory cards:

We have given here different types of memory cards available in the market. CompactFlash and Secure Digital ( Micro and Normal) are basic memory cards.

CompactFlash:

This type of card is specially designed for professional photographers. You can find CF cards in high-end DSLRs like Canon EOS-1D X Mark II. Compared to the size of SD cards, these come in a larger size but are used less commonly.

These are physically bulky than SD cards and less commonly used. Besides, CF cards have more significant capacities and enable you to run at very high speeds.

Secure Digital:

It is the basic format of the SD card. The thickness of the SD card is 2.1 mm, whereas the size is 32 mm x 24 mm. Their performance is quite good, but these are not as quick as other SD cards.

Its size is limited to 4GB above which anything will be an SDHC card.

Secure Digital High Capacity:

The SDHC card was designed to fulfill the high demands for high-definition photography and video. Like standard SD cards, these come in similar physical sizes and shapes. But these can fit the specifications of version 2.0. This type of card is limited to 64 GB above which anything will be considered an SDXC card.

It has classes— 2,4,6,8,10 with a minimum speed of 2 MB/s, 4 MB/s, 6 MB/s, 8 MB/s, and 10 MB/s.

Secure Digital Extended Capacity:

This type of card is a beefed-up SDHC card. Their range of size is between 64 GB and 2 TB.

SD – Up to 4 GB

SDHC – Between 4 – 64 GB

SDXC – Anything higher than 64 GB

There are two classes, 1 & 3, that come with a minimum speed of 10 MB/s and 30 MB/s.

Micro Secure Digital:

MicroSD card is a miniature version of an SD card. These come in 15 mm x 11 mm physical size with 1 mm thickness.

Micro Secure Digital High Capacity:

MicroSDHC or Micro Secure Digital High Capacity card is similar to the SDHC card, where you can store up to 32 GB of data. It came to the market in 2007 and allowed you to transfer up to 10 MB per second.

Micro Secure Digital Extended Capacity:

Format Focal Length F-number Crop Factor Equivalent Focal Length Equivalent Aperture

Full Frame comes with a focal length of 85 mm and F-number f/1.2. Its crop factor is 1, and 85 mm is the equivalent focal length. f/1.2 is its equivalent aperture.

APS-C has a focal length of 56 mm and F-number f/1.2. Therefore, its crop factor is 1.5, 84 mm is the equivalent focal length, and f/1.8 is its equivalent aperture.

42.5 mm is the focal length of Four Thirds, whereas f/1.2 is the F-number. Therefore, its crop factor is 2, 85 mm is the equivalent focal length, and the equivalent aperture is f/2.4.

Micro Secure Extended Capacity:

This type of micro card is similar to the SDXC, and it comes with a storage limit from 32 GB to 2 TB. However, the card can transfer data more quickly than the MicroSD and MicroSDHC.

MicroSD – Up to 4 GB

MicroSDHC – Between 4 – 32 GB

MicroSDXC – Anything more than 32 GB

Extreme Digital Picture Card:

This Digital Picture Card is a type of removable flash memory. The primary purpose for its use is in digital cameras. 20 mm x 25 mm is the compact size of the card, whereas 1.7 mm is its thickness.

Wifi Card:

wifi card is a memory card of a modern type, and this kind of card has a built-in wifi feature. The primary benefit of this card is that you can transfer the pictures to your cloud storage, PC, or mobile without the help of any cable. If the first one is filled, there is no need to replace any spare card. In this case, you are required to wait for a while to share the images with the cloud. Then, you should begin capturing images by clearing the space of the memory card.

Multimedia card:

You can use the MMC cards with the cameras compatible with SD cards. You can use the memory cards in the device and MP3 players. In this case, it is essential to remember that the MMC cards don’t contain any protection switch, and it indicates that your data may be wiped off automatically.

Memory Stick:

It is another kind of storage device manufactured by Sony initially for CyberShot. However, people still use this today, and it allows you to store information for only 256 MB.

Let’s have a look at the types in short—

  • PCMCIA ATA Type I Card (PC Card ATA Type I)
  • PCMCIA Type II, Type III cards
  • CompactFlash Card (Type I), CompactFlash High-Speed
  • CompactFlash Type II, CF+(CF2.0), CF3.0
Microdrive
  • CFexpress
  • MiniCard (Miniature Card) (limited to 64 MB / 64 MiB)
  • SmartMedia Card (SSFDC) (limited to 128 MB) (3.3 V,5 V)
  • xD-Picture Card, xD-Picture Card Type M
  • Memory Stick, MagicGate Memory Stick (size is limited to 128 MB); Memory Stick Select, MagicGate Memory Stick Select ( Here the term “Select” indicates 2×128 MB with A/B switch)
  • SecureMMC
  • Secure Digital (SD Card), Secure Digital High-Speed, Secure Digital Plus/Xtra/etc. (SD with USB connector)

miniSD card

microSD card (aka Transflash, T-Flash, TF)

SDHC

Wifi SD Cards

  • Nano Memory (NM) card
  • MU-Flash (Mu-Card) (Mu-Card Alliance of OMIA)
  • C-Flash
  • SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module)
  • Smart card (ISO/IEC 7810, ISO/IEC 7816 card standards, etc.)
  • UFC (USB FlashCard)
  • FISH Universal Transportable Memory Card Standard
  • Intelligent Stick ( a USB-based flash memory card with MMS)
  • SxS (S-by-S) memory card. SanDisk and Sony invented this new card specification.
  • Nexflash Winbond Serial Flash Module (SFM) cards. The range of its size is 1 MB, 2 MB, and 4 MB.

Why do we have different Memory Cards?

Each camera manufacturer generally uses different cards of various sizes & shapes. Along with the card, they also use different shapes of lens mounts, flange distances, lens sizes, batteries, wires, etc.

The cards are available in different sizes according to storage and physical shape. Manufacturers like Canon are willing to use Compact Flash (CF) memory cards, and other cards can use the smaller Secure Digital type.

Make sure that you have checked the camera specifications before buying the cards. If you want, then use the Micro Secure Digital with an adapter. However, it is not possible to make SanDisk memory cards smaller.

How much can I select a good memory card?

The amount of data you can store on the memory card relies on mainly three factors. These are — the device, data type you want to store, and the data quality.

When you use High megapixel cameras, you need to have more memory space for each shot than low-megapixel models. The type of information will always determine the amount you can fit on a card. Pictures need more space than text documents, whereas digital music can consume even more. Besides, video is another space hog.

It is the quality of the files that is the ultimate determining factor. The aspect will determine how much is possible for you to cram onto a memory card. The better quality you want to have, the more space it will require. Compared to the low-resolution shots, the high-resolution images need more memory space. Whether you shoot in RAW mode on your camera, every File will need more space than a standard JPEG image. If you want to store music compressed at a good quality, it can take additional space compared to those with average compression. We know this as bitrate also.

What is inside the memory card?

The memory card components are some transistors and an oxide film. These are used to construct the internal circuits of memory cards. The components are used to create two types of circuits: the floating and control circuits. First, you need to place the transistors to form a junction, and after that, you should derive a network with some rows and columns.

Oxide separation sheet is a significant component of the device, which you need to place in between both circuits. In addition, it helps to link the processing flow between the printed circuits.

What is the difference between a memory card and a secured digital card?

Memory card speed:

When it comes to speed, the memory cards can vary, and these depend on how they can read and write information. However, the speed ratings and the marking style vary according to the memory card type.

Speed classes:

Speed Class defines a minimum sequential writing speed offered by a memory card. A bus speed is also there that you can define as “UHS.”

It displays the theoretical maximum offered by a card over the bus. The UHS Speed Class and Video Speed Class specifications also define minimum sequential write speeds.

Bus interface:

We have given here different bus interfaces and their limits. Therefore, this short table can summarize different bus interfaces.

 

Bus Interface Compatible Memory Cards Maximum Bus Speed
High Speed SD, SDHC, SDXC 25 MB/sec
UHS-I SDHC, SDXC 104 MB/sec
UHS-II SDHC, SDXC 312 MB/sec
UHS-III SDHC, SDXC 624 MB/sec

 

Here, you can see a massive difference between High Speed, UHS-I, UHS-II, and UHS-III cards for maximum bus speed. The original cards have speeds like 25 MB/sec, whereas the UHS-I bus interface has a speed of 104 MB/sec.

The new UHS-II bus can multiple the speed at 312 MB/sec three times. The new UHS-II standard came to the market recently, but it can enable insane speeds of up to 624 MB/sec.

You should know that cards with a quick bus speed need a memory card reader/writer to support the bus speed. For instance, when you buy a memory card with a UHS-II bus interface, you should ensure that the card slot on the camera should support UHS-II. Otherwise, you can experience different reliability problems. The same thing is applied to a memory card reader on the PC, and it should support UHS-II for supporting the higher speeds.

What is an UHS speed class?

UHS stands for Ultra High Speed, and it is the quickest performance category. The UHS speed class lets you know bus-interface speeds of a maximum of 312 MB/S. Its primary purpose is for SDHC and SDXC memory cards, which support SDHC and SDXC devices.

It comes with two ratings within the UHS Speed Class:

U1 (UHS Speed Class 1): 10 MB/s is the minimum write speed of UHS Speed Class 1.

U3 (UHS Speed Class 3): 30 MB/s is the minimum write speed of UHS Speed Class 3.

It was the SD Association that introduced the UHS Speed Class in 2009. This one uses a new data bus that cannot work in non-UHS host devices. If you use this type of memory card in a non-UHS host, the standard data bus “Speed Class” rating becomes default rather than the “UHS Speed Class” rating. The cards have a full higher potential that allows you to record real-time broadcasts to capture large-size HD and professional HD videos.

Video Speed Class:

This class offers the quickest speeds available. It is perfect for ultra-high-resolution videos, top-quality videos, multi-file recording in drones, and 360-degree cameras. The speed class is compatible with HD formats up to 8K video in drones. Besides, it supports action cams, 360-degree cameras, and VR cameras.

V6 (Video Speed Class 6): 6 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 6.

V10 (Video Speed Class 10): 10 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 10.

V30 (Video Speed Class 30): 30 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 30.

V60 (Video Speed Class 60): 60 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 60.

V90 (Video Speed Class 90): 90 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 90.

Video Speed Class is also referred to as “V Class.” The SD Association created the speed class to determine cards to manage higher video resolutions and recording features. In addition, the speed class can guarantee minimum sustained performance to record videos.

The other speed classes can not be optimized. Besides, these can’t accommodate the recording of multiple video streams, 360  capture, virtual reality content, etc.

What is Minimum sequential write speed:

‘Sequential Read/Write Speed’ indicates the quick speed at which the drive can write or read the data from a series of blocks. Speed classes like the UHS speed class or video speed class define minimum sequential write speed.

How safe is the data stored on memory cards?

If you are thinking about the safety of your information, then these have a few unique benefits compared to hard disks or CDs/DVDs. First, these are more shockproof compared to other storage mediums. However, if it is a standard hard drive, there is a chance of damage due to moving parts.

Compared to CD/DVD, these are far less fragile. A memory card can take a scratch or two. But when it comes to scratches for a CD or DVD, you may experience data loss or an unreadable disk. Some cards are available that are so small that they can lose the whole card itself instead of by some other accident.

Card Formats:

 

Name Form Factor (mm) Abbreviation DRM
PC Card 85.6 × 54 × 3.3 PCMCIA No
CompactFlash 43 × 36 × 3.3 I CF-I No
CompactFlash 43 × 36 × 5.5 II CF-II No
CFexpress 38.5 × 29.8 × 3.8 CFX Unknown
SmartMedia 45 × 37 × 0.76 SM/ SMC ID
P2 card 85.6 × 54 × 3.3 P2 No
SxS 75 × 34 × 5 SxS No
SD card 32 × 24 × 2.1 SD CPRM
microSD card 15 × 11 × 0.7 microSD CPRM
xD-Picture Card 20 × 25 × 1.7 xD No
Intelligent Stick 24 × 18 × 2.8 iStick No
Serial Flash Module 45 × 15 SFM No
MMC micro Card 12 × 14 × 1.1 MMC micro No
Reduced Size MultiMediaCard 16 × 24 × 1.5 RS-MMC No
Multimedia Card 32 × 24 × 1.5 MMC No
Memory Stick Pro-HG Duo 31.0 × 20.0 × 1.6 MSPDX MagicGate
Memory Stick Pro Duo 31.0 × 20.0 × 1.6 MSPD MagicGate
Memory Stick Duo 31.0 × 20.0 × 1.6 MSD MagicGate
Memory Stick 50.0 × 21.5 × 2.8 MS MagicGate

 

Name

Form Factor (mm) Abbreviation DRM
Nano Memory card 12.3 × 8.8 × 0.7 NM Card Unknown
XQD card 38.5 × 29.8 × 3.8 XQD Unknown
NT Card NT 44 × 24 × 2.5 NT+ No
µ card 32 × 24 × 1 µcard Unknown
Universal Flash Storage ? UFS Unknown
Memory Stick Micro M2 15.0 × 12.5 × 1.2 M2 MagicGate

Memory Card Best Practices:

  • You should keep the card consistently formatted in the camera. When you format your card, it will erase all images. You can format it in two ways— in the camera or on the PC. However, you should know that it is better not to format a card on the PC. It cannot generate the proper directory for the camera, and the files are not saved accurately.
  • You should not use one card in many cameras. Make sure that you are not using the same one in different camera brands. The reason is that you may damage the card via overlapping incorrectly. Whether you want to switch cameras, you should format the card in the new camera again before using it.

Best Practices:

  • Use a card for one year at least. However, you should not leave cards inactive for a long time.
  • You should use cards with smaller capacities. It may happen that you have lost cards, broken them, gotten corrupted, etc. As you are not willing to lose the huge data amount, it is recommended to use 64GB or 32GB cards. However, if you are an experienced videographer, you will need higher-capacity cards.
  • Ensure that you are using a card reader for sharing images. With the help of card readers, you can transfer pictures quickly. Besides, these corrupt your card far less compared to a USB cable while being used to the PC directly.
  • You should not use a microSD card in a slot for an SD card. It is because microSD cards are available at a low price. However, in this case, the adapter piece is not designed to handle the data amount necessary for your computer, and it can damage your card or corrupt your data. Therefore, you should only use the microSD cards in native devices, such as drones, action cameras, or mobile devices. In this case, you can use the adapter piece to download your files on the PC.

How to Store Your Memory Cards:

We have given here three methods to store memory cards.

Method 1:

How to Mount a Micro SD Card for Android Phones

Step 1:

You should first see whether your mobile is compatible with SD expansion or not. Multiple new mobiles are trending away from SD cards’ use. You can check the user manual or visit the manufacturer’s web page to check if it is compatible with SD cards.

Whether your mobile cannot offer SD card support, take the help of cloud-based storage service to get additional storage. Google Drive is an example of a cloud-based storage service.

Step 2:

Now, you are required to turn off the mobile. If you are willing to do this, tap the power key on the right side of the mobile. After that, your job is to hit the Power Off option, and you should select the “Power Off” option again to shut down the device.

Step 3:

Next, your job is to insert your Micro SD card into the SD card slot. In most cases, for newer mobiles, the SD card is available in the SIM card tray. If you are willing to install a SIM card, you should first find the SIM card tray. Sometimes, it is available on the side of your mobile, and there exists a little oval-shaped compartment having a pinhole on the side. You should now use a paperclip or the SIM card removal tool available with the mobile. Insert the removal tool in the pinhole and then remove the tray by pressing the tool down. After that, your task is to keep the SD card in the holder. Now, insert the SD card again in your mobile.

Step 4:

Now, your job is to turn on the android device. Then, you should hit the Power button available on the side to switch on the mobile. You should wait for some time to boot up this.

Step 5:

You need to click on the Mount when prompted. Multiple new mobiles mount the SD card automatically without offering a prompt. However, a few mobiles ask whether you are willing to mount the SD card or not, and you should hit the option Mount if prompted to mount the SD card.

Step 6:

After that, your task is to mount the card manually. If you have mounted the SD card earlier or cannot mount it automatically, you should use the steps to mount the card manually.

  • Your first job is to move to the Settings menu and open it.
  • Then, your task is to hit the option SD and Phone Storage.
  • Hit the option, Mount.

Step 7:

You should format the SD card again and then mount it. If the mobile identifies your SD card right away, it is okay. Otherwise, you can format the SD card and, after that, mount after formating. It helps to erase all information on your card. Ensure that you have backed up and stored all your data if you are willing to keep any data on the SD card. Then, perform the steps to format the SD card.

  • Your first job is to navigate to the Settings menu and open it.
  • Hit the SD and Phone Storage option.
  • Then, hit the Reformat option available under the SD card.
  • Click on the Mount option as soon as the SD card finishes the formatting process.

Step 8:

Use the Files app for accessing the SD card. With the help of the Files app, you can easily access all files stored on the card. If the app is not available on your mobile, navigate to the Google Play Store to download the Files application.

Method 2:

Mounting an SD Card for Galaxy Phones

Perform the first three steps as previously.

In step 4, you should power on the mobile. After that, tap on the button at the mobile’s bottom. If the mobile does not Power on, it may need to be plugged in. In this case, you should connect your device with the wall charger for 15 minutes. Then, you should try this again.

Step 5: Same as previous

Step 6:

  • Perform the steps hence.
  • Head towards the Settings menu, and then you should open this.
  • Hit the Device care option.
  • You should click on storage.
  • Next, your job is to hit the SD card option.
  • Click on the Mount option after that.

Step 7:

For formatting and mounting the SD card, you must perform the steps.

  • Go to the Settings menu first and then open it.
  • After that, your task is to click on Device care.
  • Now, hit the Storage option.
  • Click on the SD card option.
  • Hit the Format option.
  • Click on the SD card.
  • Finally, your task is to click on the Mount option.

Method 3:

Check for Hardware Problems:

Step 1:

Your job is to unmount the SD card, and then you should remount it. If you face difficulties while accessing the card, perform the steps for unmounting and remounting. After that, check if the error exists.

  • Your first job is to move to the Settings menu and open it.
  • Next, you should hit the Storage or SD and Phone Storage option. Finally, you can get the option below Device care.
  • Next, your job is to click on the SD Card option.
  • After that, hit the option Unmount.
  • Now, you should click on the SD card.
  • Finally, your task is to hit Mount.

Step 2:

Remove this and then go for the inspection to check if it is damaged. You should search for the missing gold prongs. Now, check to ensure that no dents or damaged areas are on the card.

Step 3:

You should now clean the card. If the card looks dirty, then use a soft cloth and some lukewarm water or metal cleaner to clean. Ensure that the card is dry entirely before reinserting this into the card.

Step 4:

Try to mount the card again. As soon as you remove the SD card and inspect this for dirt, you should insert this again back into the device. Then, remount this again. Sometimes, you can get rid of the problem by ejecting and reinserting.

Step 5:

You should again format the card in exFAT or FAT32 format. If you have used this on another device, it may format in the wrong Format. Format it again. It helps to remove all information from your SD card, and you should insert this into an SD card reader. Then, perform the steps to reformat the card in the correct Format.

  • Your first job is to tap on Ctrl + E to open File Explorer.
  • Then, you should hit the PC.
  • After that, your job is to tap on the SD card.
  • Next, you should tap on Format.
  • Choose the exFAT (recommended) or FAT32 option under “File System.”
  • Finally, you should tap on the Start option.

Step 6:

You can check the card on different devices if it cannot mount accurately. If you find your gadget working in another device, ensure that the SD card slot can be the culprit. But if the card cannot mount even on another device, you have to replace the SD card. Ensure that you have charged your device entirely before putting the Sd card into another device.

Memory Card Readers:

Your PC may not contain the actual default memory card reader, or there may not be any card reader. Card readers allow you to use them efficiently. In addition, there are portable attachments that need to be plugged into a USB port to share images, videos, etc., to your memory card. These come in a huge variety with various combinations.

How to insert a Memory Card into your PC?

If you are willing to use a memory card, plug it into the proper card slot. You can do this directly on the console of the PC or through a memory card adapter connected to a USB port. Windows detects the card immediately and mounts this into the system. As a result, you will see the available data instantly.

Make sure that you should not put force on a memory card to insert it into a slot. If you cannot get the card into one slot, you should use a different slot. These are inserted labels side up, and you should insert label-left for the mounted memory card readers vertically.

You can see the AutoPlay dialog box available when you have inserted the card. You should use a dialog box to select the “how to view the card’s contents” option. For instance, you should choose the View Pictures option for seeing pictures stored on the card from a digital camera.

Best Five Memory Cards:

1.SanDisk 128GB Extreme Pro UHS-I SDXC

SanDisk 128GB Extreme Pro UHS-I SDXCDescription: SanDisk offers its products in 32 GB, 64 GB, 128 GB, 256 GB, 512 GB or 1 TB storage options. This product has a read speed of a maximum of 170MB per second, while the write speed is a maximum of 90 MB per second. It helps shoot 4K videos and store them using the digital camera.

It is temperature proof as well as X-Ray proof. Besides, the device offers a free code to download the Rescue Pro Deluxe data recovery software. This one is for both Windows and Mac computers.

Features:

Speed: It has a shooting speed of up to 90MB/s, whereas the transfer speed is up to 170MB/s. In this case, you need to use a compatible device to reach the speeds. For example, the SanDisk SD UHS-I card reader is a device that can be used. But it is sold separately.

Internal testing: It depends on the internal testing. Besides, you can get reduced performance relying on the host device, interface, usage conditions, etc.

Shoot: The product is ideal for shooting 4K UHD video and sequential burst mode photography. It is compatible with Full HD (1920×1080) and 4K UHD (3840 x 2160) video support. However, these rely on the host device, file attributes, etc.

UHS video and speed: The UHS Speed Class 3 (U3) and Video Speed Class 30 (V30) help to capture uninterrupted video. Besides, the UHS Speed Class 3 is designed in such a way that it helps to offer a 4K UHD video recording feature. Moreover, it comes with a sustained video capture rate of 30 MB/s. In addition, the product is designed to provide support to real-time video recording with UHS-enabled host devices.

Ideal for harsh conditions: The device is temperature-proof, waterproof, shockproof, and X-ray-proof. It allows you to store images that you have deleted accidentally.

Pros:

  • Waterproof
  • Perfect for harsh conditions
  • Support 4K UHD (3840 x 2160) video support

Cons:

  • Won’t work when it reaches 100 GB
  1. SAMSUNG EVO Select Micro SD Memory Card

SAMSUNG EVO Select Micro SD Memory CardDescription: It enables you to use different SD and micro SD devices. Besides, you can capture 4K UHD videos in detail. Moreover, it comes with an SD adapter that allows you to use it under almost each brand name.

The device lets you record 4K UHD videos and play them without glitches. It has a reading speed of up to 100MB/s per second, whereas the write speed is 90MB/s. These superfast speeds enable you to share a 3GB video to the notebook in only 38 seconds. Now, you can capture top-quality images and videos and share them instantly. Due to its vast capacity and high read/write speeds are ideal for 4K UHD video. Users can save almost every moment with the help of this product.

Features:

Capture & share files: The product is suitable for high-resolution photos, gaming, songs, tablets, laptops, action cameras, drones, smartphones, Android devices, etc.

Long-lasting: It keeps all the data and memories safe against extreme temperatures, water, as well as other harsh conditions. The product is temperature proof, Waterproof, as well as magnetic proof.

Capacity to Live Largely: The product offers a considerable space of 512GB. It is ideal for 24 hours of 4K UHD video, 78 hours of Full HD video, 150,300 photos, or 77,300 songs.

Pros:

  • 512 GB space
  • Durable
  • Lasts long
  • Suitable for tablets, phones, laptops, etc.

Cons:

  • Maybe corrupted
  1. Gigastone Gaming Plus 512GB MicroSD Card

Gigastone Gaming Plus 512GB MicroSD CardDescription: It is best for Nintendo Switch. Generally, it has 32GB or 64GB of internal storage that relies on the model. So whether you are willing to store plenty of downloaded games and related data within a handheld console, you can go with this one.

You can use the product for this purpose, although it is not recommended by Nintendo officially. The read speed is 100MB per second, whereas the write speed is 60MB per second. Therefore, it helps to share files quickly and save time. This device is ideal if you play high-action games.

Features:

Design: It is mainly designed for gaming consoles. The A1 spec offers high-speed data transfer that is suitable for game professionals.

Support: The product enables you to use it for laptops, tablets, PC, Smartphones, Cameras, and e-Reader.

Environment: It is shockproof and X-Ray proof. Besides, it offers protection from water and temperature.

Warranty: The product comes with a 5-year limited warranty.

Pros:

  • 5-year limited warranty
  • Temperature proof
  • Compatible with laptop, tablet, etc.

Cons:

  • SD cards can’t be identified and formatted
  1. Kingston 128GB microSDXC Canvas React Plus

Kingston 128GB microSDXC Canvas React PlusDescription: Are you using two cameras or devices— one is compatible with an SD card, whereas the other one is with a microSD card? Then, you should use this with an adapter. The product is equipped with an SD adapter and a MobileLite Plus USB card reader. This USB reader can work as a discounted bundle.

The 128GB storage capacity and U3, V90, and UHS-II rating make the product ideal to use. Its data transfer speed is a maximum of 285MB per second, whereas the recording speed is 165MB per second. In addition, this device allows you to shoot video at up to 8K UHD resolution, ideal for higher-end action cameras.

Features:

Professional camera: The product’s ultimate speed allows you to use a professional camera. Therefore, people who are professional creators.

UHS-II standard: This device is ideal for high-resolution photography and video recording. It can shoot 4K and 8K Ultra-HD high-speed videos without dropping frames.

MicroSD Reader: It has a MobileLite Plus microSD Reader that helps share data quickly.

Pros:

  • MobileLite Plus microSD Reader is available.
  • Don’t drop frames
  • Ideal for professional creators

Cons:

  • Throws file system errors
  1. PNY Pro Elite Class

PNY Pro Elite ClassDescription: Do you want to have huge storage from a high-end flash memory card? Then, the product is ideal for use. It is slightly on the costlier side, but the features justify everything.

100 MB per second is the superfast read speed, whereas the write speed is 90 MB per second. It can deliver performance in any situation. The product comes with 1 TB of storage that can keep plenty of high-quality images and videos.

Features:

Performance: It is ideal for professional photographers and videographers due to its good performance.

Class 10, U3 rating: It offers speed and performance for the burst mode HD photography & 4K Ultra HD videography.

Video speed rating: The V30 video speed rating allows you to shoot uninterrupted 4K Ultra HD video at 4096×3072 Format​.

Support cameras: It supports point & shoot cameras, DSLR cameras, standard & advanced HD-enabled video cameras, etc.

Durable: It is shockproof, waterproof, temperature proof, etc.

Pros:

  • Magnet proof
  • V30 video speed rating
  • Class 10, U3 rating
  • Professional photographers

Cons:

  • Costly

Memory Card Buying Guide:

You can find modern DSLR and mirrorless cameras, mostly with memory card slots. If you are willing to use this, insert it into the camera supporting it. Remember the aspects before you are going to buy a new memory card.

While selecting the best one, it may seem that the biggest card is best. Whether you capture many pictures without importing them to the PC, you should use a giant card. It is suitable for travel photographers as they can go days without sitting down. The drawback, in this case, is whether you have lost the card; no pictures will be available after that. But when it comes to a small card, you may need to back up the pictures.

Professionals use cards in high-end DSLRs, which come with more extensive storage. The reason is that the size of the images is bigger. It is used if someone is shooting Raw, and in this case, the files are larger than 25MB each.

However, if you are willing, then go with the fastest card. It helps to write images quickly. But if it is quicker than a camera, then it is of no use. You can use the fastest memory cards, but you need to invest a lot of money in this.

If a DSLR captures four fps, you don’t need to choose one with quick writing speed. Instead, people who are looking for affordable ones can use a slower card.

The fastest cards are essential for the professionals who cover sports or news photography. It helps to buffer pictures when you capture them. So go with the best one as you never want to lose out in the photography field for having a cheaper model.

Compatibility:

Memory cards are suitable only when these enable you to use the proposed camera. For instance, you can use a MicroSDXC in a MicroSDXC-compatible slot.

UDMA Rating:

It is the short form of Ultra Direct Memory Access rating. These come with 0-7, where 0 is the lowest and seven is the highest. You should know that all devices don’t support all types of speeds. Therefore, ensure that you have checked twice before buying.

Reading Speed:

Make sure that you have selected the rate at which the pictures are downloaded to the PC.

Writing Speed:

You should consider the writing speed rate at which the card can record and store the pictures you have captured, and it is the vital speed that needs to be considered. Using an adapter, you can use the MicroSD cards as standard SD cards.

Capacity:

It is one of the significant aspects you must consider before buying. You obviously don’t want to use a memory card with a low capacity that cannot fulfill the demands. Hence, you should select the factor that relies on the number of shots taken in a single event.

Multiple photographers are there who want to use 64 G lB memory cards. These can store images up to 1500 to 2000 in RAW Format. It is advised to use a memory card with at least 64 GB of capacity. Those who shoot in RAW Format need to have such cards. On the flip side, if you want to store jpeg format, go with a memory card with 16 or 32 GB. Those willing to shoot videos should use one with a larger capacity.

Speed:

This is a significant factor that can make a good experience by storing images or breaking them. You may not want to wait for hours to share pictures from the card to the PC. SD cards are available with a limited speed and are used for reading and writing.

The reading speed indicates the amount of time a card takes to read images from its memory while sharing. Besides, the writing speed indicates the amount of time a card takes to store pictures or other information in its memory. So while you are going to shoot videos, writing speed becomes a vital factor. And when you share photos from the card, then the reading speed is the crucial one.

Price:

It is an important aspect you are willing to consider before buying anything despite its use and type. The CF cards cost higher compared to SD cards, and it is because they come with better speed and UDMA 7 technology. If you want a higher speed card, it will cost more. Therefore, if you consider the capacity, you should select a card with more capacity.

Ultra-High-Speed Class & Video Speed:

When it comes to SDXC and SDHC memory cards, you find an Ultra High Speed or UHS. These come with quick write speeds, ranging from 10 MB per second to 350 MB/ s. The feature is suitable for continuous & high-definition images. In addition, you can get the SD cards available, optimized for 3D recordings & 8K videos.

Memory Card Tips:

  1. You should not purchase a memory card of the wrong type. Ensure that you know the type used by your digital camera, mobile phone, or games device. After considering the factors, you should invest your money. Then, check whether you have bought the right one or not.
  2. Make sure that you don’t become dependable on the device’s included memory. A few devices feature bundled memory cards, indicating that you can use this straight out of the box. Unfortunately, the bundled cards are available at the bottom of the capacity spectrum, which means that you can’t store data very much.
  3. Allow your hardware to determine the memory card size. Try to buy memory cards that have large capacities. These are not only easy to use, but also they are helpful for some devices. For instance, cameras shooting full HD can chew up more memory space per video.
  4. In the market, there are a lot of models available, which are made out of multiple manufacturers. Many of these offer similar performance and have the same speed. However, all cards don’t have the same features. It is because these consist of different components and manufacturing standards. If there is already a cheaper generic card available, keep using it. Otherwise, you can use cards from famous brands.
Precatuions:
  1. It is essential to take care of the cards. Compared to other storage forms, Flash memory is more potent. However, it needs a little TLC to keep your information secured. You should always format a new memory card in the camera before you use this to take images. A few cameras will not work if you have already formatted the card on another device. You should keep the cards in a case while not using this. Ensure that you are not removing the card when the device is active.
  2. Are you making a trip for your holidays? Then, don’t buy one card only. You should know that Flash memory is available at low prices. Therefore, it is better to stock up these cards before visiting any location or making a trip. In addition, it is recommended to purchase some small capacity cards like 4 or 8 GB versions. Use these as storage despite using the 32 GB model only. The reason is that if you have lost your card, or it gets corrupted or stolen, you will lose all the images.

The Bottom line:

In this article, we have given brief details about the memory card. In addition, we have also included the top five best memory cards in the market.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • For which purpose is a memory card used?

These previously come in a range from 8 to 512 MB storage space. However, the new models can store up to 8 GB of data. It is used to store pictures in digital cameras. Besides, you can store and share programs & information between handheld PCs like pocket PCs and Palm OS.

  • Is a SIM card a memory card?

A sim card has a connection with the mobile carrier. Besides, it needs to be compatible with the features on your device. It helps to store data like images or videos only.

  • Which is the best memory card?

The best memory cards are:

  • SanDisk 128GB Class 10 microSDXC
  • Samsung EVO Plus 32GB microSDHC
  • SanDisk 32GB Class 10 Micro SDHC HP 64GB Class 10 MicroSD
  • Strontium Nitro A1 128GB Micro SDXC
  • SanDisk 64GB Extreme microSDXC

 

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Chrome OS Flex: Upgrade Your Computer

Chrome OS Flex: Upgrade Your Computer

Chrome OS Flex is called the second generation of CloudReady. If you don’t know about OS Flex, check Neverware, acquired by Google two years ago. Neverware is a New York-based company that developed CloudReady, and it enabled the old PC versions for running the Chrome OS and extending the lifetime.

CloudReady was made upon an open-source Chromium OS base, and this one is compatible with Linux. The project is taken over by Google. But Google released the operating system or CloudReady 2.0 based on Chrome OS.

The operating system is compatible with Google Assistant and other Google services. In recent times, the OS allows you to access for free to Education and Enterprise users. If you are a general user, you can install the operating system on old Windows PCs and MacBooks. The OS Flex build offers a great experience to the users, but it is based on the Chrome OS 100.

What is Chrome OS Flex?

OS Flex is a web-based OS announced by Google very recently. It offers quick access to web apps and virtualization. This new upgrade comes with the same code base and releases cadence. However, it offers a few basic benefits over its predecessor.

Requisites to install os flex web-based operating system:

  • You should first have a USB pen drive with 8GB or more storage.
  • The PC must come with an Intel or AMDx86-64 processor.
  • 4GB is the minimum RAM that is necessary on the device.
  • The device’s internal storage needs to be 16GB or more.
  • Make sure that you have checked the system compatibility before installing Google web-based operating system.

Flash the web-based OS on a USB drive:

  • You should first install your Chromebook Recovery Utility Chrome extension.
  • It allows you to flash the web-based OS build on your USB drive.
  • Next, you are required to open your Chromebook recovery utility. Then, you should connect the USB drive and tap on the option “Get Started”.
  • Choose a model you want from a list.
  • You can see a drop-down menu appearing as soon as you choose a manufacturer.
  • After that, you should select the “Google Chrome OS Flex” option. As soon as a drop-down menu appears, you should choose ‘OS Flex’ from it. Next, you have to tap on the Continue option.
  • Choose the USB thumb drive and thereafter hit the Continue option.
  • After tapping on ‘Create now’, you can see a Chromebook recovery Utility available.

Chrome OS Flex: Ways to install on Windows, Laptop, or MacBook: 

  • When you have completed the flashing process, you should reboot the computer. Then, you should tap on the boot key. Hit the boot key continuously until you see the boot selection page.
  • Use the arrow keys to choose the USB drive on the boot selection page. Next, you are required to hit the Enter option.
  • You can see now ‘Welcome to Cloudready 2.0 screen’ appearing. After that, hit the ‘Get Started’ option. Go through the instructions on display and then login into the Google account.
  • Your job is to explore the operating system and install this on the hard drive.
  • After that, your task is to open the Quick Settings panel and tap on the Sign Out option.
  • You should tap on the ‘Install CloudReady’ option available on the bottom-left corner.
  • After that, you are required to tap on Install CloudReady 2.0 option and tap on it again. Then, tap on the ‘Install’ option.
  • Finally, you can see the operating system available on the device.

Benefits of Chrome OS Flex installation:

You can install the software on the computer and Macs to protect these. After installing this, your system will work fast and automatically update itself in the background. You can manage these from the cloud.

Quick modern work experience:

Installing the OS helps to boot quickly, update the background, and reduce your device downtime. You can quickly access the VDI and web apps using an intuitive, clutter-free, and reliable experience.

Quick deployment and simple management:

Use the USB or network deployment to deploy it across the fleet with policies and a user’s settings. If necessary, you can use the Google Admin console to adjust updates and configure device policies remotely.

Proactive security:

It blocks the sandboxing technology and executables for which you are not required to use antivirus software. The IT controls do not allow data loss on lost or stolen devices.

Make the most of existing hardware:

You need to refresh the old devices using a modern OS. Then, you should boost the lifespan to decrease e-waste.

How does it operating system work?

If you are willing to experience the OS, you should use a USB drive on the PC or Mac. Setting up the web-based OS merely takes some minutes to be finished.

Steps:

  •  You need to generate a bootable Chrome OS Flex USB drive for installation.
  •  As soon as the method of creation is completed, then you should install the operating system on Windows or Mac to exchange the operating system.
  • Finally, you need to deploy the operating system to more devices through a USB drive or network deployment.

When to consider in Chrome OS Flex web-based operating system:

If you want to know about Chrome OS or accelerate cloud-first OS deployment, then the OS can make this simpler than ever.

You can use recent computing with cloud-based management. Just install the operating system and experience its benefits for Macs or PCs.

Use the modern operating system to decrease e-waste and increase the lifespan by transforming the existing devices.

You may deploy a cloud-first OS on the purpose-built hardware for kiosks or digital signage.

Adjust & protect the Chrome OS Flex fleet with Chrome Enterprise Upgrade:

With the help of Chrome Enterprise Upgrade, you can unlock the default business capabilities of the OS. You should use the Chrome Enterprise Upgrade for managing these alongside Chromebooks.

Advanced security:

It allows you to disable devices remotely and turn on the sign-in restrictions. Thus, you can keep the information protected in the right hands.

Control updates:

Use this to roll the updates out slowly or automatically with an additional option for the long-term support channel.

Granular device controls:

It helps to turn on the single sign-on and identity-free login. Besides, it is useful in configuring printers and WiFi networks.

Reporting and insights:

It can pull 7-day active metrics, OS versions, and crash reports.

Conclusion:

Google has created Chrome OS Flex that is simple to use and download. Users can have this for free on their computers or laptops, and they merely should have a USB drive and a compatible system to run this platform.

 

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Printer Driver is Unavailable Error on Windows — Fixing

Printer Driver is Unavailable Error on Windows — Fixing

Generally, the Printer has excellent usage. Your Printer may run for a long year, but it doesn’t mean that it will not malfunction. It can also stop giving responses completely. We have given here a few basic printer problems, and this blog post will assist you in fixing the printer driver is unavailable issue related to Printer.

Sometimes, you can experience a “Printer Driver is unavailable” error while printing documents. For HP printers, it is very common. However, other brand drivers can face trouble also. For example, Epson printers face an “Epson printer driver is unavailable error” that occurs frequently.

When this error message appears in front of the display, it indicates that the Printer’s software is not installed correctly on the PC. Besides, it also happens that your device drivers are facing troubles. However, we are fortunate that there are methods to fix the issue.

What does ” Printer Driver is Unavailable” on Printer indicate?

The error indicates that your Printer’s driver has a specific problem that doesn’t allow your Printer to work with the PC correctly. It can be available as a status on your Windows driver software.

The issue typically occurs while the printer driver is not corrupted or up-to-date. Besides, it can happen if your system needs new Windows updates. Corrupt and incompatible printer drivers are the basic reasons for the issue.

What is a Printer Driver?

A printer driver is a small program that is available on the PC. The function of the driver is to enable communication between the Printer and itself.

Printer Driver Working:

It has two primary functions. The first one is that it works as a bridge between the Printer and the PC. It helps the PC to realize the hardware specifications and printer details.

The second function is that the driver helps translate the print job data to signals that your Printer understands. Each Printer comes with its driver. The driver is written to fit its profile on a specific OS. If the Printer cannot configure correctly or installed a wrong device driver, your PC could not detect the Printer.

However, a few printer models are there capable of using generic drivers. These come preloaded with Windows 10 and enable you to print. In this case, you are not required to install extra drivers from the manufacturer. But it can sometimes not allow you to use your Printer to its full potential due to the absence of additional printer-specific functions and settings.

Why is your Printer unable to print with Windows 10?

Plenty of reasons can be there due to which your Printer behaves like unresponsive. Hence, it is vital to check out the common causes. For example, you should check if any paper is in the tray, wires are attached to the Printer, toner cartridges are not exhausted, and your Printer is hooked up to your Wi-Fi. Check the warning lights on your device or the error messages you see on your Windows 10 computer.

Besides, whether you have updated your OS from Windows 7 or 8 to Windows 10 recently and find your device unable to print, then it may be the upgrade process due to which your printer driver has been damaged. You may have a printer driver also that doesn’t support your new Windows version.

Microsoft indicated that there would be no backward compatibility preloaded into the operating system for a few specific software and apps. The same thing applies to a few specific printer drivers. Multiple printer manufacturers are unable to update the drivers in a timely fashion.

The issue can occur due to an incompatible driver or corrupt file. However, you can fix the problem by applying a systematic approach. In this case, you are only required to check for any Windows updates. After that, you need to install the recent driver for your Printer.

How to Fix Printer Driver is Unavailable Error?

The error message prevents you from printing though you change printer ink cartridges. It doesn’t enable you to use other functions such as Scan and Copy. Whether you face trouble, try to follow these processes to fix it.

But before proceeding, it is important to know about the requirements. These help to troubleshoot the methods very easily. Make sure that you will use the second requirement only when the first requirement won’t work.

First Requirement – Change UAC Settings:

UAC or User Account Control is a setting that lets you know when your windows (10, 8, or 7) make any system changes. The changes are mainly related to the user or admin rights. You should configure the UAC settings so that it will not prevent you from installing essential components and drivers for the Printer.

Perform these steps here:

  • First, your job is to ensure that you are signed in as the Administrator on the PC.
  • Then, your task is to move to the Control Panel and then User Accounts. After that, you should go to the option, “Change User Account Control Settings.”
  • You can see that there are three levels, including two levels above Never Notify and a level below Always Notify. Hence, you need to set the slider to the third level.
  • A box is available on the right side that lets you know the summary of the setting. It will say, “Notify me only when apps try to make changes to my computer (default)” at the top. You can also see this message “Recommended if you use familiar apps and visit familiar websites” at the bottom part of the box.
  • Tap on the OK.
  • Then, you have to tap Yes when a User Account Control Settings window is available. It asks permission for the application to make changes on the machine.

Second Requirement – Complete Admin Account Verification:

If the first one is not working, then the reason is that windows have added a verification step. In this process, the identity is verified as the Administrator and stops illegal access to your account. Besides, it provides control to the admin user on all the changes made on the computer.

Steps:

  • First, your task is to ensure that you have signed in as the computer’s Administrator.
  • After that, you are required to head towards the Control Panel, User Accounts, and Make Changes to my Account in PC settings, respectively.
  • Then, your job is to tap on the Verify that is available under the Your Info heading Windows. It asks you, “how would you like to get this code.” Now, you need to select the Email Address and tap on Next.
  • Microsoft will send a verification code to your email address. You need to copy & paste the code on your required entry and tap on Next.
  • After verifying your account, as soon as the installation of the printer driver starts, the verification step won’t be available.

Here, we have given some basic troubleshooting methods that you have to apply to resolve the issue.

Ways to Resolve Printer Driver Unavailable Issue

  • You need to check if your Printer is connected to a power source and PC through Wi-Fi or a cable is used.
  • Make sure that it is powered on and not in sleep/hibernation mode.
  • Whether you send a task through email, ensure that you have specified the proper email address.
  • Wi-Fi printers are tricky due to which you have to connect your machine to a similar Wi-Fi network. It is because the Printer is going to begin a task.
  • Check if the wires are attached correctly to the PC.
  • Try to use a different wire if the recent one is damaged.
  • Whether you have a USB-enabled printer, attach it to another one if your recent USB port is malfunctioning.
  • Make sure that the printer ink cartridges must not remain empty.

Way 1) Reinstall Printer’s Drivers:

Sometimes, the driver can lose important files or become corrupted. If something like this happens to you, you must uninstall every related software. Then, you have to install your driver back on the PC.

  • In this case, your first task is to head towards the Control Panel, then Hardware and Sound, Device and Printers, and Device Manager, respectively.
  • Tap on the option Print queues to see the drop-down list. Now, you need to look for the printer model on the list. As soon as you find this, tap on its icon. Then, your job is to select the Uninstall device option. Next, tap on the Uninstall option when your Windows ask you to confirm the action.
  • Now, you are required to move to the Control Panel of your PC, and then you have to tap on Devices and Printers. Hence, you need to select the Printer and then tap on Remove device available at the Window’s top right corner.
  • Finally, you have to reinstall the driver. Ensure that you have added each essential component in the installation.

Restart Automatically:

  • In this case, tap on the Start Scan first to detect the outdated or incompatible drivers.
  • You can take Smart Driver Care’s help as it helps scan the Windows for outdated drivers.
  • As soon as the scanning process completes, you can see the outdated drivers.
  • Tap on the Update button that is available to the printer driver. Whether you use the Pro version, then you need to tap on Update All for downloading automatically and installing all outdated drivers.
  • Now, restart the OS.
  • Finally, you have to check your OS to see if the problem remains.

Way 2) Update the Windows Operating System:

If your system is outdated, it can be a reason for the issue. If it happens to you, you have to install all available Windows updates. Thus, you are capable of fixing the issue. To update the windows operating system, perform these steps.

  • You should first hit the Search Bar button next to the Windows Start Menu button. Then, you are required to tap on the “Update” word.
  • Then, the Search Bar appears with a list of possible options regarding the query. Find the Windows Update option next. After finding this, you should tap on the Check for Updates button.
  • Now, windows start checking tor the available updates. Then, you need to install these automatically.
  • When the method ends, you have to restart the computer.
  • Finally, you are required to print any page to check the issue.

Way 3) Exclusive for Plug-and-Play Printers:

Do you have a plug-and-play printer? If you have this type of Printer, then the work will be a lot simpler.

To deal with the issue, you should first unplug the Printer from the PC. It indicates that you need to unplug all cords and wires connected between these. Then, you need to connect everything again and perform the steps given by the Setup Wizard.

When you see the Wizard not appearing, your task is to navigate to the Start and then Settings.

  • After that, tap on Devices.
  • Then, you should choose to Add a printer or scanner.
  • Wait for a while now till your system is not identifying the Printer. You are required to follow the instructions.
  • Now, you can see the windows identifying all devices attached to the computer. As soon as it identifies the Printer, you should finish the instructions given on display.

Way 4) Manually Update Your Printer Drivers:

If you face any trouble after carrying out a Windows update, update the printer drivers. Navigate to the printer manufacturer’s website and check if your device is compatible with Windows 10. You can get the Driver downloads option in the manufacturer’s Support section.

When you find your device supported, you have to download the recent stable version. You need to tap two times on the installer files to add the new driver as soon as you download. Sometimes, your device can only be compatible with the manual installation of drivers. Perform the steps to do this.

  • Head towards the Control Panel first and then open it.
  • Choose the Small Icons view option available on the top right of the dialog. Next, you need to tap on the Device Manager.
  • When you go to the Device Manager window, look for the printer you are willing to install. Sometimes, you can find your Printer missing. Besides, it can have corrupt or outdated drivers, due to which you can see a yellow exclamation mark beside the name.
  • Tap on the printer name, and then you need to select the Update Driver Software option from the pop-up menu.
  • Now a new window will appear with two options. Hence, you should select the option that is marked “Search automatically for updated driver software.”
  • You need to follow the steps available in the Wizard. It helps to install the recent drivers for your Printer if these are not available. If these have been downloaded already from the manufacturer’s support site, you have to choose “Browse my computer for driver software” instead.

Way 5) Run the Windows Update Tool:

Having an outdated operating system can be a reason for the issue. It is why you are required to install all the windows updates instantly as fast as you can. Thus, you can print again and get the overall stability and security of the PC. We have given here the process of running the Windows Update utility.

  • You should first hit the Start button that is available at the bottom-right corner of the display.
  • Then, your task is to tap on the Settings icon.
  • Now, you should select the Update and Security option.
  • Windows will find updates after that. If there is any, then you have to download and install it automatically.
  • As soon as the update method is finished, you need to reboot the PC.
  • When you reboot the PC, you should check if the error message is still available or not.

Way 6) Check for Damaged System Files:

Sometimes, corrupted or damaged system files can generate multiple issues. If you are willing to fix the error, then you need to use the Reimage to perform a full Windows scan and repair.

  • First, your task is to download the Reimage and install it.
  • Then, your job is to open the Reimage. After opening this, you need to tap Yes to run a free scan.
  • With the help of Reimage, you can scan the PC thoroughly. However, it can take some minutes.
  • As soon as you do this, a detailed report of all the troubles will be available on your computer. If you want to resolve these automatically, then you need to tap on START REPAIR. But to use this, you should buy the full version. Besides, it also comes with a 60-day money-back guarantee. Therefore, if you want, you can refund any time if Reimage is unable to fix the problem.
  • Now, you need to check your driver’s status as it will be normal now.

Way 7) Uninstall the Printer Driver:

Especially, two significant solutions are there that you can follow to fix the issue. The first one is to uninstall your Printer with all related software. Then, install this in your operating system. And the second one is that go through all the available drivers and then choose the correct one. It helps to uninstall them, and then you should try to connect it. Thus, the default drivers can be installed.

Steps:

  • First, your task is to tap on Windows + R buttons. Then, write “control” in the dialogue box and hit Enter. As soon as you enter the control panel, ensure that you have chosen the option View by Large icons. After that, you need to tap on the Devices and Printers.
  • You can now see all the names available in the list.
  • Tap on the name that is creating the issue. Then, you have to choose the “Remove device” option.
  • Now, you must hit Windows + R again, and after that, your task is to write “devmgmt.msc”. Your task is to move to the “Print queues” category and then tap on the Printer. After that, your task is to choose the “Uninstall device” option. Sometimes, the option may not be available in the Printer after removing it from the control panel. Therefore, there is nothing to take tension if you won’t find this.
  • Write “appwiz.cpl” in your dialogue box after typing Windows + R button. After that, your task is to hit Enter. All the apps are available in the list.
  • You should now tap on the printer applications and then choose “Uninstall.”
Further Steps:
  • When you complete performing the steps given above, you need to unplug the device from your PC. You should do this while the device is connected via a USB connection. You should unplug it from your router if it uses wireless. Then, your task is to close the PC, Printer, and router. After that, you are required to plug the power supply out.
  • You should wait for ten minutes. After waiting, you need to connect all of these and start all modules. You should then plug the device into your PC with the help of a USB cable initially. Now, you should wait till the detection process is not finished, and then you have to install your essential drivers.
  • You should then move to the control panel and tap on the device. After that, your job is to choose “Set as default printer.” You need to print a test page to check if the issue remains.

Via Device Manager:

  • First, you are required to hit the Start button. Then, your job is to move to the Device Manager section.
  • Hit the arrow button that is beside Print queues to extend this group.
  • If your Printer is not available in the list, then you need to open the View menu. Then, your task is to choose Show hidden devices.
  • Tap on the Printer and then choose Uninstall device.
  • Now, your task is to tap on Uninstall for confirmation.
  • As soon as you uninstall the device, you need to go to the Action menu and open it. Then, choose Scan for hardware changes.
  • Now, your task is to reboot the computer. Windows will install the missing device automatically.
  • At last, you should try using the Printer.

Way 8) Start Windows in Safe Mode:

You can try to boot your windows in Safe Mode as it is an ideal way to disable any non-critical drivers, services, or processes. These can affect the PC and cause errors.

The process of doing this is as follows:
  • Head towards the Start menu first and open it after that. Then, your job is to hit the power button.
  • Hold the Shift button down and then tap on Restart.
  • Now, you can find your Windows booting in Recovery startup mode with a blue screen.
  • Then, you should choose the Troubleshoot area.
  • After that, you must navigate to the Advanced options and then Startup Settings.
  • Tap on the Restart.
  • You should then tap F4 to turn on the Safe Mode.
  • As soon as your Windows boots, use your Printer.

Way 9) Install Generic Printer Driver:

Your PC may not detect the Printer or get stuck as an Unknown device. Hence, your task is to install default generic printer drivers manually. Perform the steps to do so.

  • Your first task is to tap the Windows key and hold this. Then, you need to tap X.
  • Next, you should choose the “Device Manager” option.
  • As soon as you open the Device Manager, you need to find the Printer. If you cannot find this, you should check if the “Unknown Devices” option is available in the category.
  • Tap on the device and tap on the “Update Driver” option.
  • Then, your task is to tap the “Browse my computer for drivers” option.
  • You should choose “Let me pick from the list of available drivers…..” and then select “Generic Software Device.”
  • Next, your job is to tap on the “Next” Option, and then you should restart the PC.

You should know that installing the Generic driver might not allow you to use some functionality. But it makes your device usable, at least.

Way 10) Reinstall Printer:

If you cannot solve the ‘Printer driver is unavailable’ error message, you should reinstall the Printer. The effective way that you can choose is to solve irregularities. If you are willing to do this, then perform the steps.

  • You should switch off the printer device and unplug it after that.
  • Then, you must write Add Or Remove Programs by going to the search field.
  • Next, you can choose the Printer that you are willing to uninstall.
  • Wait for a while till the uninstallation procedure is not completed.
  • You should now reboot the operating system and then connect it again. Now, you can turn on your Printer.
  • You can take the help of the installation disc or USB in this case.

Way 11) Roll back the Printer Driver:

Have you installed a driver mistakenly which does not support your Printer and operating system? It may be a reason why you are facing the error message. Hence, the easiest way to do this is to roll back your driver to an earlier version. These are the steps that you are required to perform to do this:

  • Your first task should be to tap on the Win key + R buttons. Then, you need to write devmgmt.msc. After that, you have to tap on the Enter to open Device Manager.
  • Then, your job is to expand the category of the Print queues.
  • Tap on the printing device, and then your task is to move to the Properties.
  • Now, go to the Driver tab.
  • You should now tap on the Roll Back Driver and then go through the instructions.
  • If you see the button in grey color, it indicates that no earlier version is saved on the computer. As a result, you are unable to perform the process.
  • Finally, your task is to reboot the Windows PC and then check your Printer.

Way 12) Set the Default Printer:

Have you connected many printers and scanners with your PC? If yes, your OS can take a hard time detecting your default printer. Therefore, the device will not function properly and show the error message. However, you can resolve this by setting the default printer.

  • First, your job is to tap Win key + R and then write Control Panel. Next, you need to hit Enter to open this app.
  • Then, you need to go to the Devices and Printers.
  • Now, you need to identify your printer name in the category of Printers.
  • Tap on this and then choose Set as the default printer.
  • Tap OK for confirmation.
  • Finally, check your Printer to see if it works.

Conclusion:

If you don’t want to face Printer driver-related issues such as printer driver is unavailable, or driver unavailable on the Printer, or Printer says a driver is unavailable error messages, then you should perform specific things. You need to keep the hard disk constantly optimized and install a driver from an actual source. Make sure that you haven’t installed any software from unknown sources. Try to use reliable driver updater software and keep the drivers updated. Wish our guide will help you to fix the error message ‘printer driver is unavailable’. Try all the methods one by one to resolve the error.

Frequently Asked Questions: 

How do you fix Printer Driver Is Unavailable Error?

You can solve the error by installing or updating the printer driver. Besides, you can also update the Windows Operating System to fix the issue.

How do you make your Printer Driver available?

The issue is usually seen when your driver becomes corrupted or outdated. In this case, updating your windows or the printer driver (manually or automatically) can help you.

What is the Driver Is Unavailable Error For The Printer?

It happens while the PC and printer driver is outdated or not compatible. Your Printer can experience multiple problems like paper getting stuck, unclear, blotched print, etc. The printer driver unavailable error is one of the examples of technical issues hence.

 

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How to Use Laptop as a Monitor for PS4?

How to Use Laptop as a Monitor for PS4?

Willing to play video games? But unable to do so because someone is watching programs on the TV? Then, you may want to use your PC as a replacement screen. In this article, we will let you know how you can use a laptop as a monitor for PS4.

Hence, the things required are PS4, Laptop, HDMI, remote controller, and Micro-USB cable (network connection). Whether you like to plug your PS4 into a laptop display rather than a big LED TV, it is essential to have these things. You should know that you are unable to attach High Definition Multimedia Interface port on the Laptop directly. The reason is that this one is unidirectional. Using the HDMI port, you can see the content of your PC to the external monitor only. But you require the video input and HDMI input to create a link with PlayStation to the laptop display.

How to Use Laptop as a Monitor for PS4:

It is not so easy to use a PC as a monitor like you connect it to the HDMI cable. The reason is that PlayStation 4 and laptops both use HDMI outputs. Each of these is not designed for HDMI input.

As a choice, you can purchase a video capture card or take the help of a game-streaming service. But the issue is that each of them introduces significant input delay. If necessary, you can use the physical HDMI ports because these are backward compatible. But the wires are compatible with video signals in one direction.

However, removing the panel of the Laptop can be done technically. Then, you are required to find a controller for the ribbon plug for transferring to the HDMI. After that, you can use this as a display.

Both can be damaged if you have attached two HDMI output devices through HDMI. A few methods are there to make a connection between PS4 and your Laptop. The two simple ways are using a capture card and a streaming service or Remote Play.

Connect Laptop and PS4 via a Video Capture Card:

A video capture card is a small tool to watch content from your console on another device. Besides, a video capture card allows you to record video footage. Use the capture cards to attach the Laptop as a monitor.

You need to acquire and prepare the necessary accessories for the setup.

If you want to make the system, first, you will require the Laptop, Ethernet or WIFI connection, a video Acquisition device, network connection, HDMI wire, and compatibility for file sharing. In most cases, you can see people using a video capture card while streaming or recording console games.

But these can’t deliver the best performance for direct gaming because they lag from the input delay. However, it works well while you screen records your games.

Requirements:

  • A video capture card
  • A dual-functioning HDMI cable
  • A PS4 model with a File Sharing option
  • An Ethernet or a wireless network connection
  • A laptop

Check Connection Settings:

Your first task is to navigate to the Settings first in the PS4 menu to turn on file sharing. After that, you should navigate to the network settings. Then, you are required to open the Internet Connection Settings and look for the network connection. Now, ensure that you have connected your device.

If there is no wireless connection, it is necessary to configure the PS4 and the Laptop to the same router. This job can be done taking assistance from Ethernet cables. It allows you to stream between the two.

Install the Software:

Take the help of the USB port for connecting the Video Capture Card to your Laptop. It will constitute a combined S-video connection. You should install the software available with the Video Card so that it works properly. Here, you need to ensure one thing is that your video capture card is of top quality.

Plug HDMI and PS4 to Capture Card:

If you are willing to plug the video card into the PS4, it is necessary to have an S-video connection wire. After that, your job is to connect the HDMI-IN on the capture card and connect HDMI-OUT on the PS4.

Open and Run the Software:

Your task now is to see whether the software can be opened or not. After opening the software, your job is to power up the PS4. The software will find the device and then display it on the screen. Here, you must make sure that the app should be in full-screen mode for displaying the full resolution. Ensure that you run the software after finishing the procedure.

Following the steps, you can configure the Laptop to stream gameplay from the device with HDMI.

How to Download Remote Play on Windows:

It is effortless to download the Sony Remote Play. Just go to the official website of Sony and download it from there. In this case, you should be careful about one thing that is you can choose the right operating system for your Laptop.

This gives two options— Mac and Windows PC. In case you download the incorrect version, you cannot install and operate it.

How to Set Up a PS4 for Remote Play:

When you have finished downloading the correct version for Windows, and with the help of the software, you can play PS4 on your Laptop. You will get improved stability in this latest update. So, those who have downloaded the Remote play already can get the updated version.

The steps you are required to perform to install the PlayStation Remote Play for Windows are as follows:

As soon as you complete downloading the software, you should run the installation file. It helps to open a new dialog box. In the dialog box, you can see the instructions letting you know the installation process and setting up correctly. You have to ensure that you must download the extra features also. If you are willing to download the additional features, you should check the right options available in the dialog box.

When the installation process is completed, setting up the PS4 gaming console is necessary.

If you are willing to set up, follow the instructions.

Steps:
  • First, your job is to enable the PlayStation 4 console and subsequent move to the Settings.
  • After that, your task is to tap the Remote
  • Play Connection Settings.
  • As soon as you open the settings tab, you need to choose the Enable Remote Play checkbox. Thus, you can turn on PlayStation 4 to interact with the installed Remote Play software.
  • After that, your job is to return to Account Management from PS4’s Settings.
  • Set up the console of the device as the primary system. Next, you should tap on the Activate as your Primary PS4. Then, you have to tap the activate option.
  • When the console is in rest mode, you can use the Remote Play feature.
Steps that need to be performed are:-
  • First, your task is to head towards the PlayStation 4’s settings menu.
  • Now, you should move to the Power Save Settings.
  • Next, your job is to tap on the Set Features Available option in rest mode.
  • After that, you should go to the Enable Turning on PS4 option and check it from the Network. You should keep a connection with the Internet checkboxes.

Thus, you can set up the Remote Play on PlayStation.

How to Use Remote Play and Connect PS4 to Laptop:

Heat distribution plays a major role if you are using a graphics card. A preset fan speed curveball can be used, decreasing the speed or boosting it depending on the GPU temperature. The feature helps to determine the cooling performance while the heat is produced.

Thus, it is possible to overclock the GPU avoiding damages.

It enables you to save the presets to use these. Thus, the utility will configure to the desired settings.

How to Connect the Laptop to PS4 with the Help of Remote Play:

When you complete downloading, installing, and setting up the Remote Play, you should use that after that to run the PS4 on your Laptop.

Things that you need to do here are:

  • Your first task is to power on the PlayStation 4. If you are willing, you can put this into the rest mode. But make sure that the PS4 has been configured for that mode.
  • After that, you are required to attach the controller to the Laptop. You can follow two methods— use the DUALSHOCK USB wireless adapter or USB cable.
  • You should go to the installed Remote Play Software and open it on the Laptop.
  • After that, your task is to hit the start button.
  • As soon as the window asks you for the information, you have to put the credentials for signing into your PlayStation Network account.
  • While you are using Remote play, ensure that a good network connection is available. Otherwise, you can experience lagging on poor internet connection.

How to Connect PlayStation 4 to a Laptop via PlayStation Now:

PlayStation Now is a PlayStation console gaming experience that doesn’t have any PlayStation console. It is the latest gaming subscription-based service of Sony through which you can play the PS2, PS3, and PS4 games. You don’t need to purchase the console or the game.

The service is not free, but it offers multiple amazing PlayStation games. You can access them quickly and play them without a PS4.

If you are willing, you may test the trial version of the service. You will need

Windows 7,8.1 or 10, Intel Core i3 with 3.5 GHz or AMD A10 with 3.8 GHz, minimum 2GB Memory, and 300 MB Storage.

How to download PlayStation Now for Windows:

You should download the PlayStation Now and install it after that. To do this, you are required to follow the steps.

  • If you are willing to download this, your first task is to move to Sony’s official website. You are capable of Googling it also using the related keywords. For example, you can use Sony PlayStation Now. After that, your job is to tap the official website of Sony. Thus, you are capable of opening the PlayStation Now downloader webpage.
  • As soon as you download this, you need to open the setup wizard. Then, you have to tap on the next option.
  • Now, you have to agree to the license agreement, and then you have to tap on next.
  • Move to the folder of your Laptop in which you are willing to install the PlayStation Now. After that, you should tap on the next option.
  • You have to check the box then to generate a shortcut for the desktop. Then, you should tap on next again to move forward.
  • Hit the install button now.
  • You can see a prompt appearing two times, allowing the app to change the system. Then, tap on the allow.
  • After that, you should tap install that is available on the install popup wizard. The PlayStation Now can take some minutes for installation.
  • As soon as you finish installation, your job is to tap on the finish option. After that, the PlayStation Now will launch automatically. In case it doesn’t happen, begin this manually.

How to Use PlayStation Now and Play PS4 on a Laptop: 

  • Your first job is to choose the date of birth, region, and language. Now, you are required to tap on the submit option.
  • You have to tap on a sign-in option that is available at the top right corner of your display. In this case, you may need to update some settings.
  • After that, your job is to tap the “start free trial” available at the top of the homepage. As soon as you tap on this, it will go to the browser.
  • You have to choose a 1-month subscription or the 12-month annual subscription when you see the options. It depends on what you prefer. After the trial period ends, you will be charged automatically.
  • You need to choose the “choose a version” option available on the left side of the page.
  • Your job is to type the credentials to log in to the Sony Account. You should use the same account to sign in to PlayStation Now.
  • After that, hit the “7-day trial” option.
  • It may happen that you have not saved any payment billing details already. Hence, you need to put the payment details as per your preferred method.
  • As soon as you register the payment details, return to the app and play games as you prefer. It is possible to cancel the subscription before the ending time of the free trial. In this case, you are required to head towards Sony Settings on your Laptop. Then, navigate to the Account Management, Account Information, and PlayStation Subscription, respectively. Next, you need to choose the PlayStation Now Subscription option and disable the Auto Renew option.

Plug the controller into the Laptop if you’re willing to play games. Perform the steps to do this.

Your first job is to use the USB cable to connect the controller to the Laptop.

After connecting, you can see a controller icon appearing on display in the top right corner. Tap on the option for connecting the controller.

Thus, you can attach the controller.

Built-In Recording Function:

PlayStation 4 comes with a built-in recording function using which you are capable of recording the gameplay with voice narration. Then, you should store this on the Laptop.

This feature enables you to broadcast the PS4 directly to your Laptop display.

  • The setup process is straight forward
  • You have to ensure that both PS4 and Laptop should be connected to a similar network.
  • Then, you can open any game that you are willing to play or record.
  • Next, you should hit the “share” button available on your controller. Now, a menu appears in front of the screen with multiple sharing sub-options.
  • Tap on the “advance settings” and click the “broadcasting settings” sub-menu.
  • Finally, select your Laptop from the window and then begin streaming.

If you are willing to add voice, you can do this too. However, the primary job of this function is to record the video only. As soon as you feel fine with the settings, play any game as you prefer. The settings will record this automatically.

Playing PS4 on a laptop is very useful. If you use HDMI, it becomes cheaper and more reliable. Besides, there is no necessity to invest plenty of money to get the gaming experience. The best advantage is that it allows you to stream games without lagging.

OBS Recording Software:

It is a third-party display recording software using which you can use a laptop as a monitor with the PlayStation 4. In this case, the benefit is that there is no need to take the help of a video capture card for playing PS4 on a laptop.

The software comes with a few advantages that are:

  • It is open-source software for free use.
  • The software is equipped with features like High-performance real-time AV capturing.
  • Audio mixing, noise suppression, and gain Streamlined settings.
  • Studio mode enables you to review the PS4 screen recordings and delete the parts that are not essential.
  • It supports Windows, macOS, and Linux devices.

Steps that you are required to perform are:

  • First, your job is to download the OBS recorder by navigating to the official website and installing it afterward.
  • Then, you have to open the software and select the window capture option.
  • It allows you to customize your recordings based on the available settings.
  • Next, head towards the display of PS4 and then choose “OK.”

Compared to video capture cards, this software is easier to use.

Using PSNow to Play PS4 Games:

PSNow can run off the PlayStation Network. You might not experience speed too much. However, your network speed is also a dependent factor. It has a drawback that is the app is a little bit expensive.

If you cannot use your Laptop as a monitor, you can purchase a portable monitor. A lot of portable monitors are available in the market. Most of them are known as tablets and can be used with laptops and other devices.

There is another benefit of using a portable monitor. It enables you to use this as a second screen for your device. When making any road trip, a portable monitor can become very useful.

The Bottom Line:

Did I wonder how to use your Laptop as a monitor for PS4? We have covered the topic in our article. These ways come with simple steps that don’t need too much time. Therefore, you can run without waiting for a while and play the games without waiting for a while.

It is possible to connect PS4 and Laptop through a Remote Play or via a Video Capture Card. You can try any of these methods. However, it is recommended to use Remote Play because this one is Sony’s official alternate gaming-streaming solution.

Frequently Asked Questions: 

  • Do you have to use remote play to play the PS4 on your Laptop?

No, it is not mandatory to use Remote Play. It is one of the simplest and most in-expensive processes you can try.

  • Will your PS4 run smoothly on your Laptop?

If you want to use a laptop as a monitor, it is necessary to use an HDMI cable, video capture card, or Remote Play. To follow the methods and perform, you should have a strong internet connection running smoothly. If you don’t have a strong connection, you may experience a lag between the controller and the Laptop. Besides, laptops of low-end models can face troubles while running the PS4 properly. If the Laptop is on the lower end, you have to manage the fps and resolution settings.

  • How do you know if my Laptop is HDMI input or output?

It isn’t easy to get a laptop with HDMI input. In most cases, laptops contain HDMI output, due to which it is unable to receive a video signal except its motherboard. It indicates that you cannot connect other output devices easily to your Laptop. You should check once the specifications of your Laptop and see if it comes with HDMI output or input. Whether your Laptop is HDMI-input, it is possible to make a direct connection between your PS4 and Laptop via the HDMI cable.

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