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3 Ways to Modernize Your Small Business

3 Ways to Modernize Your Small Business

Changing with the times is critical for growing your business. Here are three simple ways to modernize your enterprise.

Cut the Cord

Traditional landline phone service has become outdated and overpriced. Switching your communications to Voice over Internet Protocol modernizes your phone system while saving your business a bundle.

VoIP phone systems offer all the tools you’ve become accustomed to with traditional phone service, from voicemail to forwarding to conference calling, plus lots of extras. Because VoIP runs both data and voice communications over a single network, there is significantly less infrastructure than with separate systems, so users save by combining their broadband and telephone services.

Ditch Paper

Another modernization step that can save you money also helps your business to do its part to improve the environment. Reducing the use of paper in your enterprise lowers costs, streamlines procedures, and cuts back on unnecessary waste.

By switching to electronic invoices, correspondence, and documentation, you’ll stop buying costly reams of paper, eliminate hours spent mailing and filing paperwork, and send significantly less garbage to the landfill each week. From generating electronic invoices to recording signatures digitally, there are simple steps you can take to make your business practically paper-free.

Lease Don’t Own

Whether it’s your automobile, your equipment, or your office space, leasing rather than owning necessities is a smart decision in modern business operations. Although it may seem counterintuitive, it’s often more cost-effective to make a monthly payment for items than it is to own them outright.

Leasing vehicles and equipment gives you the flexibility to upgrade as needed. You won’t be stuck with outdated technology because you own something and don’t have the cash on hand to replace it. It’s often easier to finance acquisitions with leases, too, as they typically don’t require a down payment.

When it comes to your office space, buying a property may bring some cost and tax benefits, but it can prove problematic long-term. If you need to expand, you’ll be limited by the space you’re in, and you’ll be taking on maintenance headaches, and expenses, that you wouldn’t necessarily incur as a tenant.

Modernizing your small business brings benefits in the form of cost savings, streamlining, waste reduction, the ability to better keep up with technological changes, and reduced maintenance concerns. By switching your phone service, reducing your paper usage, and opting to lease rather than buy key items, you’ll prime your enterprise for greater success.

 

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What is Flash Memory? How It Works?

What is Flash Memory? How It Works?

What is Flash memory?

Flash memory is a non-volatile storage memory. It is designed to erase and rewrite or re-program at the byte level easily. It is a special type of floating gate memory. Each memory chip holds plenty of flash memory cell units. It is based on electrically erasable programmable read-only memory called EEPROM. Flash memory is a unique type of EEPROM (Electronically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory) designed for high speed and with high density. It typically consists of large erase blocks (Greater than 512 bytes) and with not less than 10 000 writing cycles. It stores a large amount of data in a small area using stacked memory cells. The density of the memory cells is increased significantly to cater to the demand for storing more data in a small area.

The primary limitation of Flash memory is that it can do a relatively smaller number of write cycles in a specific block. In 1980 Toshiba, a Japanese company, invented it. A Flash memory gadget consists of several flash memory chips and a controller chip.

Types of Flash Memory:

There are two types of flash memory. They are:

  • NOR Flash memory (NOR Flash, the correlation between the bit line and the word lines resembles a NOR gate)
  • NAND Flash memory (NAND flash, the correlation between the bit line and the word lines resembles a NAND gate)

They are named after the logic gates they use in writing and rewriting. They use the cell design consisting of metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor in a floating gate. Both of them differ in many aspects, including circuit level. Microcontrollers also use it for writing and executing firmware. The NAND memory is typically significantly smaller in size. As a result, they may be erased, rewritten, and read in blocks. At the same time, NOR memory allows a single machine word to be erased, rewritten, or read in a location independently.

NAND type memory is used in memory cards, old model solid-state drives, mobile phones, and USB flash drives. NOR memory is also used to store more critical configuration data in various digital products, battery-operated Static RAM. Their purpose is to work as general storage and transfer of data.

How It Works:

Flash Memory CellIt comes with inbuilt solid-state chips. In addition, each chip has an array of flash memory cells.

Flash memory uses electrical circuits to log data. The current flows through the transistor between each cell source and drain. The transistor regulates the path and functions as an on-off switch or gate.

The transistor allows current to flow across the cell at the ON position, which stores binary code “1”. At the OFF position, the transistor blocks the current flow and stores the value “0”.

Flash Memory is used in computers, handheld Pcs, personal digital assistants, digital audio players, digital cameras, mobile phones, synthesizers, video games, medical and scientific instrumentation, and robots. Its memory latency is significantly less, and it has a fast read access time. On the other hand, it is comparatively slow compared to ROM or RAM. It has high mechanical shock resistance and is therefore used in some portable devices vulnerable to mechanical shock. Flash memories have a significant advantage over other non-flash EEPROM. It has large block sizes.

Flash EEPROM:

Furthermore, their erase cycles are very much slow. Therefore erasing large blocks gives it a good speed advantage while writing bulk data. Comparatively, Flash EEPROM costs much less than the byte programmable EEPROM.

It is significantly employed in non-volatile solid-state storage. Using die stacking of three-dimensional integrated circuits in vertical interconnection, flash memory packages can be raised to the capacity of up to 1 TB. It needs at least 16 vertically connected stacked dies with one integrated flash controller inside the package to get the storage capacity of one tebibyte (240 Bytes)

Early History:

The idea of flash memory was started to develop from the origin of FGMOS or floating gate transistors, which are used in floating gate memory cells. Earlier, the EPROM and EEPROM were included in the floating gate memory. However, it requires a lot of manpower to build a memory cell for each bit of data, which is expensive and more time-consuming.

In 1980 Fujio Masuoka, working at Toshiba, designed a type of floating gate memory that erases the entire section of memory very easily in lesser time. He applied voltage to a wire-connected group of cells in the memory. It leads to the invention of flash memory. The name Flash was recommended by Shoji Ariizumi. In 1984 they invented NOR Flash and then NAND flash in 1987.

Unfortunately, when Masuoka presented it at the annual International Electronics Developers Meeting in 1984, the world of American scientists saw it as a threat. So Toshiba launched the NAND flash memory in 1987. One year later, Intel launched its NOR flash chip memory.

NOR Type Memory:

NOR-type memory has a long write and erase time. However, it provides full address and data buses allowing random access to memory location. Therefore NOR-type memory is suitable for the replacement of ROM Chips. Programs stored in ROM very rarely need to be updated. So it is a better replacement for ROM, which stores such programs in BIOS, the firmware of set-top boxes. It can be used to a maximum of 100,000 erase cycles. Initially, the Compact Flash was based on NOR, and it later moved on to NAND to control the price.

NAND Type Memory:

NAND flash has lesser erase and write time. In addition, it requires less chip area per cell. Therefore it has a higher storage density and lower cost than the NOR flash. However, the disadvantage is that the I/O interface of NAND flash does not possess a random-access external address bus.

Therefore Data must be read on a block-wise basis with block size varying from hundreds to thousands of bits. This makes the NAND flash unsuitable for the replacement of ROM since most of the processors and microcontrollers require byte-level random access. Therefore NAND flash is best suitable for secondary storage devices such as hard disks and optical media. It is best suited for mass storage devices such as SSD and memory cards. They will have multiple inbuilt NAND flash memory chips.

Due to the latest technological advancement, the memory density of NAND flash is highly improved and commercialized.

Charge Trap Flash (CTF):

CTF is a semiconductor memory technology used to create non-volatile NOR and NAND flash memory. It is another type of floating gate MOSFET memory technology. The conventional floating gate technology uses polycrystalline silicon film to store electrons, but the CTF doped the conventional technology using polycrystalline silicon as a floating gate structure and replaced it with silicon nitride film.

CTF replaced Poly-silicon floating gate technology. CTF is sandwiched between blocking gate oxide above and a tunneling oxide below it, with an electrically insulating silicon nitride layer. The silicon nitride layer traps electrons. This CTF technology provides better data retention with zero electron leakage. Conversely, the electrons become more excited with increasing temperatures; therefore, electrons leakage may happen at a higher temp.

Tunneling:

However, Charge Trap Flash still uses a tunneling oxide and blocking layer, which are the two negatives of that technology. The Blocking layer may get damaged due to anode Hot Hole Injection, and the tunnel oxide may get damaged due to the extremely high electric fields. Therefore the oxides must be unsalted against the electrons to prevent the electron leaking, which may lead to data loss. With increasing wear of oxides, the data retention may go down. Furthermore, the degradation of oxides may directly affect the endurance of the memory since the oxides lose their insulating characteristics as they degrade. In 1991, the NEC scientists implemented Flash Memory with the charge trap method.

Later in 1998, NROM flash memory technology was introduced. They replaced the traditional floating gates with a charge trapping layer in conventional flash memory design. In 2002 Vertical NAND technology-based flash memory cells started using 3D charge trap flash technology vertically within the chip. Toshiba introduced 3D V- NAND technology, and the first device implemented 3D V- NAND with 24 layers came to the market in 2013.

3D IC (3D Integrated Circuit) Technology:

This technology loads IC chips vertically into a single 3D IC chip package. Next, Toshiba introduced 3D IC into NAND flash memory. Later in 2010, 3D ICs came into widespread commercial utilization and use of NAND memory in mobile gadgets. Then in 3D V-NAND with eight stacks, 64 layers came to the market.

Flash Memory Working Principle:

Flash memory has an array of memory cells made from floating-gate transistors in which Data is stored. In single-level cell memory devices, each cell stores only one bit of information, whereas in Multi-level cells, including TLC, data can be stored more than one bit per cell. Besides, there are two types of floating gates, namely conductive and non-conductive. In Floating Gate, polysilicon is employed in both conductive and non-conductive.

Floating Gate MOSFET:

MOSFETIn flash memory, each cell resembles MOSFET (metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor). However, it varies with the MOSFET transistor gate. MOSFET has only one gate, whereas the other has two gates. Each cell works as an electrical switch in which current flows between source and drain. Further, it is controlled by a floating gate and a control gate. The control gate functions similar to the gate in the MOS transistor. But below the control gate, a floating gate is placed. The floating gate is insulated entirely using an oxide layer. The floating gate is placed between the control gate and the MOSFET channel.

Since the insulating oxide layer electrically isolates the floating gate, the electrons held within them are trapped.

How Data is Stored:

When the floating gate is charged with electrons, the increase in charge screens the electric field from the control gate, increasing the cell’s threshold voltage (VT1).

Therefore, a higher voltage (VT2) must now be applied to the control gate to make the channel conductive. In order to read the binary value from the transistor, an intermediate voltage between the threshold voltages must be applied to the control gate.

If any of the channels conduct at this intermediate voltage, the floating gate must be uncharged (if the floating gate is charged, the intermediate voltage will be less than VT2 conduction will not happen. Further, if the conduction happens, then logical “1” is stored in the gate; if the channel does not conduct at the intermediate voltage, it implies the floating gate is charged, and therefore a logical “0” is stored in the gate. The presence of “0” or “1” is identified by determining where there is current flowing through the memory transistor when the intermediate voltage is asserted on the control gate.

In Multi Level Cell Device:

Data can be stored more than a bit per cell in a multi-level cell device. Therefore the amount of current flow is sensed to identify the level of charge on the floating gate. There is an electrically insulated tunnel oxide layer between the floating gate and the silicon; therefore, the gate floats above the silicon. Moreover, the oxide layer keeps the electrons confined to the floating gate. In the long run, degradation or wear may occur due to the extremely high electric field experienced by the oxide. This high voltage density can break atomic bonds overtime on the relatively thin oxide coating. Thereby it gradually loses its insulating properties and allows the trapped electrons to move freely, resulting in electron leak from the floating gate, which may lead to data loss.

What is Fowler Nordheim Tunneling?

Fowler Nordheim Tunneling is the process of moving free electrons from the control gate and into the floating gate. By doing so, we are changing the characteristics of the cell by increasing the MOSFET’s threshold voltage. In turn, it changes the source current that flows thro’ the transistor for a given gate voltage; it is used to encode the binary value to the cell. Fowler Nordheim Tunneling is a reversible process; therefore, electrons can be added to or removed from the floating gate. Adding or removing the electrons from the floating gate is known as writing and erasing.

 Internal Charge Pumps:

To erase and program, it needs high voltages, but the latest flash chips require a single supply voltage, and they produce high voltages of their own using the on-chip charge pumps. The charge pump is similar to DC to DC converter that uses capacitors to raise the voltage. With simple circuits, the charge pumps can do high erasing voltages. However, the charge pumps may fail in high radiation environments.

NOR Flash:

NOR FlashEach cell in the NOR Flash’s one end is directly grounded, and the other end is connected directly to the bit line. This arrangement behaves as the NOR gate. While one of the word lines connected to the control gate is brought high, the relative storage transistor will pull the output bit line low. For embedded applications that require distinct non-volatile memory, the NOR Flash suits best. Their low read latencies allow both direct code execution and data storage in single memory products.

The default state of the single level NOR-Flash cell is logically equal to the binary value 1. Since the current flow through the channel by applying the appropriate voltage to the control gate, the bit line voltage is pulled down. NOR flash memory cell can be programmed or set to a binary value of 0 by following the steps:

Apply elevated voltage to the control gate

Now the channel is turned on, and electrons can flow through the source to the drain

The source-drain current is sufficiently high to make some high-energy electrons jump through the insulating layer onto the floating gate.

NOR ErasaingA high reverse polarity voltage is applied between the control gate and source terminal to erase the NOR-Flash cell and pulls the electrons off the floating gate through quantum tunneling. The latest model NOR chips are divided into multiple erase segments called blocks or sectors. The erasing operation can be done block-wise. Moreover, all the cells in the erase segment will be erased altogether. The Programming of NOR cells is done one word or byte at a time.

NAND Flash:

NAND flash uses floating-gate transistors connected in the same way as NAND gate. Several transistors are connected in series. Further, the bit line is pulled low if all the word line is pulled high above the VT. In addition, this group is connected through some additional transistors to a NOR style bit line array in the same method as a single transistor linked in NOR flash.

Replacing single transistors with serially linked group add more level of addressing. Due to serially linked transistors, NAND flash can address it by pages, word, and bit, whereas the NOR flash memory can address by word. This bit-level addressing best suits bit-serial applications such as hard disk emulation, which can access only one bit at a time.

To read data, the desired group is first selected in a similar way the NOR array selects. Then most of the word links are pulled up above the VT of the programmed bit when one of them is pulled up to just over the VT of an erased bit. Even though there are additional transistors, a reduction in the number of ground wires and bit lines allows a tightly packed layout with higher storage capacity per chip. Besides, the NAND flash is generally permitted to contain certain number of faults. The latest models are more compact since the manufacturers are maximizing usable storage by minimizing the size of the transistors.

NAND Writing and Erasing:

Tunnel injection and Tunnel release are used for writing and erasing in NAND flash. It is used in removable USB devices called USB flash drives. Besides, most memory cards and solid-state drives have NAND flash type.

The NAND flash structure starts from cell level to strings, then pages, blocks, planes, and a die. A string is a series of connected cells in which the source of one cell is connected to the drain of the neighboring cell. Generally, the NAND string consists of 32 to 128 NAND cells. Besides, strings are organized into multiple pages. Further, the pages are organized into blocks in which each string is connected to an individual line called a bit line.

The cells, which are in the same position in a string, are connected through the control gate by a word line or WL. In addition, the plane contains a definite number of blocks that are connected through the same bit line or BL. Moreover, the Die consists of one or more planes connected by the circuit wiring that needs to do the read, write and erase functions.

In NAND flash, the data can be read and programmed in pages typically between the size of 4KiB and 16KiB. However, it can be erased only on the entire block level, consisting of multiple pages.

How Flash Memory Read and Write:

When a page is erased, all the cells in the blocks are logically set to “1”. Any cell that has been set to “0” by programming can be reset to “1” only by erasing the entire block. New data can be fed into a page; if the page already contains any data, then the current content of the page plus the new data will be copied to a new erased page. Further, if a page is available to copy then, the data will be written to it immediately.

If no erased page is there, then an entire block should be erased before copying the data to a page in that block. The old page will be marked invalid, and it is available for erasing and reusing. To prevent early failure in the page, the controller meant for wear leveling ensure all blocks are used equally. The data will be moved to one of the least used pages. If the repeated failure occurs when erasing the block, that block is marked as bad and will not be used further. Flash memories are built with excess spare blocks; they can handle the bad blocks easily.

In V-NAND, memory cells are stacked vertically, and it uses a charge trap flash architecture. The vertical layers allow larger bit densities without requiring smaller individual cells.

Structure:

V- NAND uses a charge trap flash that stores the charge on an embedded silicon nitride film, and it is purposely made thicker to hold a large number of electrons. It warps the planar charge trap cells in a cylindrical form. In 3D NAND floating gate, the memory cells are entirely isolated from one another, but in Charge Trap, the 3D NAND, vertical groups of memory cells share the same silicon nitride materials.

Every memory cell is made up of one planar polysilicon layer containing a hole filled by multiple concentric vertical cylinders. These holes act as gate electrodes. The outer-most silicon dioxide cylinder acts as the gate dielectric, enclosing a silicon nitride that stores the charge.

The memory cells in different vertical layers do not interfere with each other. The vertical collection is electrically similar to the configured series linked group. As a result, the V-NAND Flash is double time faster than the conventional NAND.

Flash Memory Limitations:

The flash memory can read or programmed a word or a byte at a time in a random access fashion, but it can be erased only on, by blocks. Once erased, all bits in the block will be 1. Any cell within the block can be programmed in a freshly erased block. Once any cell bit has been set to 0 to change it back to 1, we need to erase the entire block.

The NOR flash offers random access, read, and programming operations, but it will not offer a random-access rewrite or erase function. But a location can, however, be rewritten as the new value “0” bits are the superset of the overwritten values.

The data structure cannot be updated completely, but it can be removed, marking them invalid.

Each cell may hold more than one bit in multi-level cells, so this technique may need to be modified.

Memory cards and USB flash drives are only block-level interfaces or flash translation layers. It helps to control write to a different cell each time to control the wear level of the device. In addition, it prevents incremental writing within a block.

Memory wear- It has a finite number of program erase cycles

A flash memory without wear leveling will not last for long. If there is no wear leveling, every write to a previously written block will be first read, erased, modified, and rewritten in the same location, and it will consume more time and wear out quickly. Besides, the other locations will not be used at all in the entire life cycle.

The X-ray can erase the program bits.

The memories that have to go through a large number of programming cycles cannot be a flash memory unit.

NOR Memories Management:

The reading method may cause nearby cells in the same memory block to change over time in NAND memory. It is called read disturb. If reading continuously from one particular cell, that will not fail but the surrounding cells on a subsequent read. The flash controller will count the total number of reads to a block since the last erase to overcome the read disturb issue. When the count exceeds the target limit, the block is copied over a new block, erased, and released the block pool. The new after-erase is fine as the original block. If the flash controller is not function and intervenes in time, the Read Disturb Error will occur with some data loss if the errors are many.

The NOR memory has an external address bus for Reading and Programming. The Reading and writing are done on page-wise, and erasing and unlocking are done on block-wise. But in NOR, Reading and writing is at random access, and unlocking and erasing are done block-wise.

The reading process in NOR- Flash is similar to reading from RAM by providing the address and data bus mapped correctly. With this feature, the processors can use the NOR memory as execute in place memory. The programs stored in NOR flash can be executed directly from the NOR without the need of copying from the RAM first. The NOR flash can be programmed in a random-access manner similar in Reading. The block sizes are 64, 128, or 256 KiB. The latest NOR chips come with Bad Block Management. It is controlled by the device driver controlling the memory chips that handle the blocks that wear out. A typical NOR Flash does not need an error correction code, and they have very slow writing speed when compared to NAND chips.

NAND Flash Memories:

The ECC will correct a one-bit error in every 2048 bits using 22 bits of ECC. Even if ECC cannot correct the error during the read, it can detect and point out the error. For example, during Erasing, the device can detect the blocks that fail to erase and mark them as bad. Then the data can be written to the different blocks, and the bad block map will be updated, including the present bad block. Generally, NAND flashes are shipped from the manufacturer with some bad blocks.

Moreover, they are marked as bad blocks according to the bad block marking strategy. NAND is best suited for the systems which require high volume data storage. It offers higher density with greater capacity at a lesser cost. It is swift to erase, sequential write, and read.

NAND standardization:

ONFI is a consortium of technology companies developed to standardize the low-level interface for NAND flash chips. Its objective is to make it easier to switch between NAND chips from various producers to develop NAND products at a lower cost. In addition, it ensures interoperability between the NAND devices from various vendors.

It specifies the following:

Standard  pinout for NAND devices

Standard set of commands for reading, writing, and erasing

A fault-free mechanism for self-identification similar to SPD (serial presence detection)

Difference between NOR and NAND:

  • The connection to the individual memory cells varies.
  • The interface for reading and writing the respective memories are different.
  • The NAND allows only page access, whereas the NOR allows random access.
  • Nor Cells are larger than the NAND cells since they need separate metal contact for each cell.
  • NOR flash cells are connected in parallel, and NAND flash cells are connected in series.
  • The series connection occupies less space than the parallel one. Therefore NAND flash is cheaper than the NOR.
  • With the series connection and removal of word-line contacts, a large grid of NAND flash cells occupy lesser space when neither compared with NOR cells.
  • The cost of the NAND cell can be further reduced by removing the external address and data bus circuits. Instead, the external device can communicate with the cells through sequentially accessed commands and data registers.
  • NAND flash can replace the mechanical hard disk, whereas NOR flash can replace the ROMs.
  • Write endurance of NOR flash is typically greater than NAND flash.
  • The 3D NAND performance may degrade if more layers are added.

Flash File System:

It is a file system designed to store the files on flash memory-based storage devices and gadgets. Though it is similar to the file system in general, it is optimized for the nature and characteristics of the flash memory. It can avoid write amplification. Write amplification is an undesired phenomenon associated with it.

Write Amplification:

In flash memory, it must be erased before it should be rewritten. The erase operation is more delicate and complicated than the write operation. While writing or rewriting, it needs to do moving user data and Metadata more than once. The rewriting process requires an already used portion of Flash to be read and updated, and written to a new location together with the initially erased location if it was used at some point of time.

Due to the nature of its working, a much larger portion of Flash must be erased and rewritten than the actually required amount of data. As a result, it multiplies and increases the number of write requests tremendously. Therefore it shortens the reliable operation time. Besides, it increases the bandwidth of the flash memory, which directly affects the random write performance. On the other hand, reads do not require an erase of the memory. Therefore, they will not be affected by write amplification, but the read disturbs error may happen in that block that is going to read and rewrite.

Error Corrections:

We know the Data is written on memory at the page level, which is made up of multiple cells. But the memory can only be erased in larger units called blocks that are made up of multiple pages. If the data in some of the pages of a block are no longer needed, then the pages with good data in that block are read and rewritten into another previously erased vacant block. The free pages with the stale data are available now for new data writing.

This process is named as garbage collection. It is best used with a controller to do Wear Leveling and Error Correction that is specially designed for flash file systems to overcome these issues. The basic concept is that when the flash storage is updated, the file system of the memory will write a new copy of the changed data to a new block and re-map the file pointer, then erase the old block later when it has time.

The memory cards, SSDs, and USB flash drives have inbuilt controllers to perform the error corrections and wear leveling.

The file system is optimized to handle erasing the blocks. As a result, flash memories devices impose no seek latency. In addition, flash file systems are designed to spread out writes evenly to avoid wear leveling.

Flash Memory Capacity:

More chips are often dying stacked to achieve higher capacities in most of the devices. The flash memory is made of interrogated circuits and techniques; increasing the capacity of flash chips is always following Moore’s law. However, in the latest devices, after introducing 3 D NAND scaling, Moore’s law is no longer applicable since the tiny transistors are no longer used. Typically the size of the memory capacity is expressed in multiple powers of 2s, Such as 4 GB, 512MB, etc. The capacity available for file usage is slightly lesser than the size expressed. It is due to the space occupied by the file system Metadata.

The memory chips are sized in strict binary multiples. It is considerably larger than the labeled capacity. But some space is occupied and allotted for distribution of Write Wear Leveling, Sparing, Error Correction codes, metadata, and internal firmware.

Transfer Rates:

Flash memory is much faster at Reading than at writing. Further, its performance depends on the storage controller. The work of the storage controller is critical when the storage is partially full. The absence of any appropriate controller can result in degraded speeds.

Applications of Flash Memory:

Serial Flash:

It is a tiny low powered flash memory that can only provide serial access to the data instead of addressing the individual bytes. It reads or writes a large closest group of bytes in the address space serially. The serial peripheral interface bus protocol is used to access the data. When serial Flash is included into an embedded system, it requires only very few wires on the printed circuit board than the parallel flash memory. It transmits and receives Data only one bit at a time. It allows a reduction in board space, power consumption, and total system cost.

Elimination of bond pads permits more compact and elegant ICs on smaller die. It, in turn, helps increase the number of dies on a wafer. And thereby minimize the cost per Die. Furthermore, it eliminates the number of external pins used and thereby reduces the packaging and assembly expense. As a result, a serial flash drive device can occupy lesser space than a parallel-connected flash device.

Less number of pins occupies a lesser PCB area and minimizes the overall size. Further lesser number of pins simplifies the PCB routing.

There are two types of serial peripheral interface (SPI) flash types. The first type is of all small pages that have only one or more internal SRAM page buffers allowing a complete page to read the buffer and partially modified and then write back. The second one has larger sectors. These types do not have an internal SRAM buffer. Therefore complete page must be read out and modified before being written back, making it slow to manage. The second type is cheaper. Unfortunately, these two types do not have the same pinout; they are incompatible and not exchangeable.

Firmware Storage:

Modern Central Processing Units are of higher speed, but the parallel flash devices are often much slower than the memory bus of the motherboard they are connected to. The modern DDR2 SDRAM offers access times much below than 20 nanoseconds. So it is more advantageous to allow the shadow code stored in Flash into RAM. For that, the shadow code is copied from Flash into RAM before execution so that it may access it at full speed. The device’s firmware is stored in the serial flash device and then copied to the RAM when the device is powered up. Using a serial flash device is better than using the onboard chip flash removes the need for significant process compromise.

Flash Memory as Hard Drive Replacement:

One of the most recent developments in flash memory applications is that it is treated as a replacement for hard disks. When compared, it does not have the mechanical limitations and latencies of the hard drive. Therefore the Solid-state drive is better when considering the speed, noise, power consumption, and reliability. Now they are used as a substitute for the hard drives in high-performance desktops.

The cost per gigabyte of flash memory is significantly higher when compared to the hard disks. The deleted files on SSDs can remain for a long time before being overwritten by the fresh data. The software or erasing techniques have no effect on SSDs. Using the TRIM command, the solid-state drives can mark the logical block addresses of the deleted files as unused to enable garbage collection. Even data recovery software cannot restore the files deleted in such a way.

The Archival or Long Term Storage:

The floating gate transistors in the storage device hold the charges that represent the data. However, this charge gradually leaks over time. That will lead to more logical errors that are known as bit rot or bit fading. It is not clear how long the Data on the flash memory will stay secured under archival conditions. The retention span varies with the model and type of storage. When connected to the power and staying idle, the charge of the transistors that hold the Data is routinely refreshed by the storage firmware. Therefore the ability to retain data will be affected by the following factors such as data redundancy and error correction algorithms.

Scalability:

Due to its simple design and structure and high demand, NAND flash memory is the most belligerently scaled technology. Due to high demand and competition on the higher capacity flash drives, they are shrinking the floating gate MOSFET design rule. As a result, the MOSFET feature size of the cells reaches a 15 to 16nm limit, and the density increases to 3 bits per cell combined with the vertical stacking of NAND memory planes.

 

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How to View the Clipboard History on Android & Windows

How to View the Clipboard History on Android & Windows

The Clipboard is an area in mobile where you can find the copied data before pasting it into the target location. However, it can store one element only. Therefore, your Windows replaces contents while copying something every time for which you are unable to retrieve the data you have copied before. For instance, if you forgot to paste any text after copying and then if you copy another text, you will lose the earlier one forever. Let us know How to View the Clipboard History on Android & Windows.

What is a Clipboard?

Clipboard lets you copy and paste various data types. Hence, the information may be text, images, binary stream data, etc.

What is Clipboard History?

Clipboard History is an app enabling you to copy & paste anywhere, edit, manage, remove clips easily. Besides, it is possible to access items very fast. A few Android mobiles enable you to access it, while others only showcase the earlier copied content.

It is a set of all data you have copied to the application, such as different format texts— plain text, RTF, HTML, images, file lists, etc. If you are willing to access it, you need to use specific software. We advise you to use Clipdiary. The software can remember copied items like plain text and text with formatting (RTF), HTML, pictures, and files. However, if you use a Samsung phone, you cannot access the file without rooting the mobile. Take the help of a clipboard manager app to access it on the android device.

What Gets Stored in Clipboard?

It was available first in Windows 10’s October 2018 Update. Recently, it has been compatible with text, HTML, and images coming in less than 4 MB size. But, unfortunately, you can’t store oversized content there.

It can save up to a maximum of 25 entries. In addition, the app will reset each time you reboot the device till you pin an item to it.

How to View the Clipboard History on Android Mobile:

You can view the app in a few ways, even on android devices that don’t come with the default function. The way you view it on your android phone relies on the type of model you use. Despite sharing similar OS, android mobiles differ in multiple features, where a keyboard is one of them.

In most cases, smartphones come with built-in clipboards. But a few devices allow you to view the history.

You should follow the way to view the app on the devices.

  • First, your task is to navigate to Messages, Notes, Email, or any place you are willing to paste a message from it.
  • You should now press the display and hold it to access several options.
  • After that, you should choose the option “Clipboard.”
  • Finally, you have to turn it off to see the complete history.

Unfortunately, most android mobiles don’t come with the feature. Rather than that, these enable you to paste the most recent item that you have copied. You can view the app and manage it, but it needs installing third-party apps.

Best Ways to Check and Recover Clipboard History on Android Using Keyboard Apps:

Most android mobiles have default keyboards, but many people are there who want to install a third-party keyboard app. The reason is that keyboard apps provide exciting features like clipboard managers.

Gboard:

It is one of the most famous keyboard apps. Gboard is the official keyboard of Google and is simple to use. Over one billion people have downloaded the Gboard app from the play store, and multiple new devices have Gboard pre-installed.

We have given here the process to use it to set up and view on the android device.

  • You should ensure that you have completely installed the software and set it as the default keyboard. You should download it from the Play Store if you have not installed the software.
  • Tap on the clipboard icon above the letters while writing in Gboard.
  • Hit the option “Turn on Clipboard.”
  • You should copy the items you are willing to save in the app.
  • After that, tap on the clipboard icon again, and view the copied items below the option “Recent.”
  • The software allows you to save all the items you have copied forever by pinning. Hence, you should tap on the clip and hold it for a while. Now, you can find the software available under “Pinned.”
  • You need to remember that the feature will not work if you make the feature disabled. As soon as you disable it, Gboard will not save items that you have copied, and you will not find any way to retrieve them.

SwiftKey:

It is a fantastic keyboard app with clipboard options. The process of accessing the app and viewing the history is as follows:

  • Use the app first. Whether the app is not available, you should download it from the Play Store.
  • Next, your task is to copy the items you are willing to save to the app.
  • Hit the clipboard icon, 3rd one from the left.
  • The items you have copied are available, with the most recent one at the top. It allows you to pin specific items and stop them from expiring. Tap the pin on the right part of the items you are willing to save.

Other Apps:

Multiple keyboard apps have specific features. These may have different features, but in most cases, they offer good options that provide more control over the items in most cases. We advise you to go with Chrooma and Ai.type. However, multiple apps are available, giving excellent features.

How to View the Clipboard History on Android & WindowsUsing Dedicated Clipboard Apps

Use this type of app to view the app. It is a perfect choice for those who copy & paste different content and want to use a solution to organize it. A few apps provide more features than famous keyboard apps like Gboard. These let you arrange copied items into categories, turn into QR codes, and translate them into different languages.

Clipper:

It is a famous app available on the Play Store. The app provides multiple features making the model easier to control.

The process of viewing the app in Clipper is:-

  • You should make sure that the software is available on your mobile. If you have not installed it previously, you should download the software from the Play Store.
  • After that, your job is to hit the option “Clipboard.”
  • Now, the copied items are available in front of the display. You will find the most recent article available at the top of the list.
  • The app lets you save automatically everything you have copied and add your clippings manually. Tap the plus sign available at the bottom-right and then write the clipping.
  • It is possible to access the app through the status bar and save time if you want to view it.
  • The software allows you to pin items that you use often and helps to sort these into different categories.

Clipboard Manager:

It can make the app managing a breeze. More than one million people have downloaded it from the Play Store.

Use the software to view the app by following these steps—

  • You need to make sure that the software is available on the android device. If the software is not available on your mobile, you should download it from the Play Store.
  • Next, your job is to open the application.
  • Then, you can find the copied items available below the “Clipboard” section, where the most recent articles are available at the top.
  • When you install the software, it will sync with the android device. If you are going to copy a text on the mobile, you will automatically find this in the app. The app lets you adjust the app manually, indicating that it helps to add text within the app.

It is possible to add favorite clipboards, create many categories, use the Search option to navigate quickly, merge notes, etc. You can access the app from the status bar directly. Besides, you may use the “Smart actions” feature by going there, making it separate from the rest. It allows you to include new notes, run a Google or Wikipedia search, or translate various content.

Other Apps:

Clip Stack and Clipboard Actions & Notes are examples of other apps enabling you to manage. These let you use them freely and don’t contain any ads. The Standalone apps are ideal for people willing not to change the default keyboard but often use copy & paste features.

Tips:

We have given here a few tips to help to use its functions safely.

  • Ensure that you should not keep sensitive details in the app. Try not to save passwords, SSNs, PINs, or credit card details, as these may go to the wrong hands. If you use any third-party app, the probability is higher. You should download reputable apps only with positive reviews.
  • While providing app permissions, you should know that some apps can access it without you knowing.
  • Whether you are using an app that you may access from the status bar directly, ensure its showing details.

How to Check and Recover Clipboard History on Android:

If you copy something in your email before copying another text, you can check and recover content from the app. The two ways let you know how to retrieve any text copied previously without losing them.

  1. Using Google keyboard (Gboard):

With the help of Google keyboard, you can view and recover the history on your mobile. In addition, you can find a clipboard manager in multiple keyboard apps enabling you to access previously-copied texts.

Most devices have installed the app already, and it has been working with the feature for two years. So these are the steps to check and recover it on the mobile device.

Step 1: Press the clipboard icon beside the Google logo while typing with Gboard.

It will launch the feature of Gboard.

Step 2: If you are willing to recover any specific text from the app, you only need to click on it to paste it into the text box. Texts will not remain in the Gboard after an hour by default.

Pin the copied text manually if you are willing to stay here. Hence, your task is to click on the clip and hold it. After that, choose the pin icon. You can now see the clip moved to the Pinned section of the clipboard manager.

Ensure that you have enabled the feature to get the best from the app. For example, while launching the feature, the app will say ‘Gboard clipboard is off,’ and you should toggle on it with the help of the switch.

If you find the feature disabled, Gboard can’t back up the copied texts, and you cannot recover them. Whether you cannot find or use the feature on the app, assure that you have updated the app. To update the app, go to the google play store on the device.

  1. Use dedicated Clipboard Apps:

Using third-party apps is another way to retrieve the content on the device. Compared to Gboard, the apps can offer advanced and quick copying and pasting features. If you need to copy and paste plenty of texts, you will find a few of the apps helpful.

These apps can encode the app content into QR codes and share the clips with others. Multiple apps are available on the Google Play Store.

How to Clear the Android Clipboard:

Are you using the Clipper Clipboard Manager? If yes, you may see a Delete option while choosing the three dots to the right of a selection. Use the option to clear out the items.

  • Turn on the Gboard keyboard and use it. If you don’t find the app available on your mobile, you may install it from Google Play.
  • Navigate to the messaging app and open it on the android phone. After that, hit the + symbol to the left of the text field.
  • You should now choose the keyboard icon. As soon as the keyboard appears, your task is to select the > symbol at the top. Finally, hit the clipboard icon for opening the app on your android.
  • Whether you have not used it before on the android device, a notification appears on your mobile to enable the Gboard.

If you are willing to enable the Gboard, you should click on the option Turn on the Clipboard.

  • You can copy anything and check it on the Google Android keyboard again. You can find a list of current items you have added.
  • Hit the edit icon to delete any of the items from the Clipboard.
  • Choose every item that you are willing to delete. After that, your task is to hit the trash icon to delete.

The clipboard manager with the default keyboard app relies on the android mobile and brand. For instance, you will find a tool that depends mainly on your Android phone Samsung Keyboard. The keyboard is the initial way to access the software without an app.

Best Ways to Check and Recover Clipboard History in Windows 11:

clipboard WindowsHow to Enable the Clipboard App:

Two ways are possible to enable the app— the Settings app or emoji panel.

Enable from Settings:

If you are willing to enable it through the Settings app, you should follow these steps.

  • Your first job is to navigate to the Settings and open it.
  • Tap on the System.
  • Tap the app’s page available on the right side.
  • Now, your task is to open the settings of the software.
  • After that, enable the app toggle switch.
  • As soon as you finish the steps, you may start copying and pasting, with an extra interface letting you adjust the contents you copied.

Enable from Emoji Panel:

If you want to enable it through the emoji panel, you must follow the steps.

  • Your first job is to invoke the Windows key + V keyboard shortcut.
  • Hit the Turn on button.
  • As it is a part of the emoji panel, you may access the feature with the help of the Windows key +; or Windows key + . keyboard shortcuts. Thus, you can open the “Clipboard” tab.

How to Sync:

While enabling the app, it is possible to configure the feature to upload and sync the contents you have copied across devices connected to the Microsoft account.

The process of syncing to the cloud and across devices is as follows:

  • First, go to the Settings and open it.
  • Then, tap on the System.
  • Next, tap the app page available on the right side.
  • After that, you should enable the Sync across the devices toggle switch.
  • Then, choose the sync option to use with it.

Automatically sync text that I copy — It will sync to the cloud and across the devices connected to the same Microsoft account.

Never automatically sync text that I copy — Hence, your job is to choose the contents you are willing to upload to the cloud to make these available across devices.

As soon as you finish the steps, the items stored will sync across the devices. In addition, it enables you to paste text and images you previously copied on other devices.

How to Use:

  • It can work similarly to the classic experience. The interface allows you to review and adjust the stored content, the only difference from the classic experience. While selecting the sync option, you can paste text and images uploaded across devices to the app.
  • As soon as you enable the feature, continue to use both the Ctrl + C & Ctrl + V
  • keyboard shortcut to copy and paste, respectively. With the help of the context menu or the command bar in File Explorer, it is possible to do the same.
  • The Windows key + V keyboard shortcut can open the emoji panel to see the list of items copied from other apps like Microsoft Edge, Word, OneNote, Notepad, etc.

Copy and Paste:

If you are willing to copy & paste content with the feature, follow the steps.

  • You should go to an app and open it.
  • Choose the text or image. You should know that the app allows you to copy images from specific apps like the Snipping Tool. Unfortunately, it isn’t possible to copy image files to the app. However, you can copy & paste files usually, though these don’t appear in the interface.
  • Tap on the selection and select the Copy (or Cut) option.
  • Switch to the application for pasting the content.
  • After that, your job is to invoke the Windows key + V keyboard shortcut.
  • If you are willing to paste the content, choose the item to paste it.
  • Whether you are willing to paste as text without formatting from the source, you should tap the See more (three-dotted) menu. After that, your job is to tap on the Paste as Text option.
  • As soon as you finish the steps, you can see the text or image appearing in the app, relying on the output selection.

Manage Items:

If you are willing to manage items in history, use the steps.

  • Your first task is to invoke the Windows key + V keyboard shortcut.
  • Then, hit the Pin button to quickly access the content you frequently use.
  • Next, tap the See more (three-dotted) menu button. Then, your job is to tap the Delete option for removing the items from the history.
  • As soon as you finish the steps, you will not get the text or image available in the history.

How to Clear Clipboard:

If you are willing to delete all items in the history, use the steps.

  • Navigate to the Settings and open it.
  • After that, your job is to tap on the System.
  • Next, you need to tap the app’s page on the right side.
  • You should now open the app’s settings by going there.
  • Hit the Clear button for the “Clear clipboard data” setting.
  • As soon as you finish the steps, you will find the history cleared on the mobile, except pinned items.

How to disable the app:

First, perform the four steps of the previous section.

Now, you have to disable the Clipboard history toggle switch.

As soon as you finish the steps, you can copy and paste them as before. But you will not get any access to the history. Besides, the contents are not going to sync across devices.

How to Check and Recover Clipboard History on Windows 10:

How to Enable:

  • Your first job is to hit the “Start” button. After that, you have to tap on the “Gear” icon available on the left side of the Start menu. Thus, you can open the “Windows Settings” menu. If necessary, then tap on the Windows+i to get there.
  • While in the Windows Settings, you should tap on “System.”
  • As soon as you are on the Settings sidebar, tap on the “Clipboard.” You should find the “Clipboard history” section in the app settings. Then, your task is to toggle the switch to “On.”
  • Now, you have enabled it. Turn off Settings and use the feature in any app.

How to View the app:

  • As soon as you have enabled it, a list of items will appear in front of the display you have copied recently while using any app.
  • If you are willing to view it on Windows 10, your first job is to tap Windows+V.
  • As soon as you tap there, you can see a small window popping up. You will find the most recent copied items available at the top of the list.
  • Tap on any item in the list to paste it into an open app.
  • If you are willing to remove items from there, you should tap on the ellipses (three dots) beside the item that you want to delete. Then, choose the option “Delete” from the small menu popping up.
  • Whether you are willing to remove all items from there, you should tap on the “Clear All” In the ellipses menu.
  • However, you can pin an item on the list. Thus, you can see the option available on the list although you restart the PC or tap on the option “Clear All.” Then, you have to tap on the three-dot menu and choose “Pin.” It is possible to unpin the item later by choosing “Unpin” from the ellipses menu.

You will find a different look at the interface on older versions of Windows. Follow the steps for the devices running a build before 1909.

As soon as you use the Windows+V keyboard shortcut, you can see a small floating window. It is available near the app you use, or all windows remain closed or reduced in the lower-right corner of the display. Items you have last copied will appear at the top of the list.

If you keep the window opened, tap on any item in the list to paste it into an open document. Whether you are willing to remove items from there, you should tap on the small “X” beside an item on the list. It is possible to clear the whole list. But to do so, you need to tap on the option “Clear All” in the window’s upper-right corner.

Tap on the small pushpin icon beside the item to pin an item to the list. The item is available on the list even if you restart the PC or tap on the option “Clear All.”

How to Disable the App:

If you are willing to disable it in Windows 10, you should move to Settings. After that, go to the System and the app. Next, you need to look for the option “Clipboard history,” After that, toggle the switch to “Off.”

After disabling the option, a small window will appear when you tap Windows+V. It lets you know that Windows 10 cannot display your app as the feature is not enabled.

Use the Clipboard App on a Mac:

Mac does not enable you to use it like windows. The Operating System allows you to paste only the most recently cut or copied item.

You may install a third-party tool. Multiple tools are available to select, such as CopyClip, or PasteBot.

Conclusion:

The article lets you know how to view the app on Android devices. Besides, we expect you to like our recommended keyboard and clipboard apps.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • How do you view the app in Chrome?

As soon as you are ready to paste or take a peek at the application, you should tap on the Search/Launcher key+v. After tapping there, you can see the floating clipboard manager.

  • Where is the app stored?

Navigate to Settings, System, and the app, respectively, and then your task is to enable the switch for the app. Tap on the Win key+V to see it. Now, you can see all the copied items available in recent history.

  • Where is the app on Gmail?

You can find this on the keyboard while the cursor is available on the subject line for Gmail. But it isn’t available on the keyboard if the cursor is available in the body of the email.

 

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Best Bluetooth Transmitter in 2022

Best Bluetooth Transmitter in 2022

In recent times, Bluetooth technology and wireless devices have had the most uses. Therefore, many people prefer to stream all the virtual content with wireless headphones or TV.  You can use them after plugging them into your device. Then, with the help of a bluetooth transmitter, it is possible to stream content quicker than before. But which model should you use? Before knowing about the five best BlueTooth transmitters, you should know what it is.

What is Bluetooth Technology?

It is a low-power wireless communication standard of short-range. The technology uses radio transmission to connect electronic devices. People use it for mobile accessories like headsets, speakers, telepresence tools, video equipment, and different transmitters.

What is a Bluetooth transmitter?

It is a type of adapter used to upgrade old technology. A Bluetooth transmitter is an electronic gadget that communicates and transfers data between two connected devices in 2.45 GHz. It first decodes the source file into a particular transferable format and then sends it using the radio waves, namely Bluetooth Signals. Besides, it helps to connect newer, Bluetooth-enabled devices. If you have an old item and you are not willing to replace it, a transmitter is an ideal option in such a case.

These seem like small USB dongles, loaded with intelligent Bluetooth protocols completely. The devices send out strong signals making them compatible with other electronics. These come with a radio frequency of more than 2.4 GHz.

The devices have a helpful USB cable using which it is possible to connect your device through a plug-in receptacle or a USB port.

How much can you expect to invest in a Bluetooth Transmitter for a TV?

You can purchase a decent model for less than $50. However, whether you want to have improved better battery life and capability to connect many devices at a time, you need to invest at a price tag over $50.

What to know before buying a Bluetooth FM transmitter?

These are the things that you should know before purchasing the best device.

Is it for devices in your home?

If you want to buy for your home, you don’t have to use FM radio signals. However, an FM signal is essential to use a transmitter in a vehicle.

What Bluetooth version do you want?

Ensure that this type of adapter supports the Bluetooth version you want. The new versions come with more stable connections and quicker speeds. If you wish to have an affordable option, look for an older, cheaper model that supports previous versions of Bluetooth.

Which connection methods do you need?

While connecting the device, you may want to use different ports. For instance, radio stereo systems have 3.5-millimeter audio ports useful for compatible cords. On the other hand, FM transmitters suitable for vehicles have to plug into automobile auxiliary power outlets to function.

5 Best Bluetooth Transmitters in  2022

  1. Avantree Oasis Plus Certified aptX HD Bluetooth 5.0 Transmitter Receiver

Avantree Oasis PlusDescription: The product is aptX Low Latency certified. You can get the ultimate “no lip-sync delay” experience while using the device with a speaker or headphone supporting aptX Low Latency or FastStream. Thus, it makes you sure that you will get perfectly synced visual audio for every content you will watch on display.

It comes with a “Pass-Through” or “Bypass” feature that guarantees simultaneous audio output through the headphones connected to the device and external TV speakers like Sound Bar or Stereo AVR. It enables other members to hear the TV though you use headphones.

Features:

“dual-link” function: It comes with a “dual-link” function enabling you to connect two Bluetooth headphones/speakers at a time. The feature allows you to play audio through both devices simultaneously. So now, you can enjoy any Netflix content with your friends without disturbing other people in your household.

Broad Compatibility: The TX mode is suitable with TVs with an audio output port. Besides, it allows you to pair Bluetooth-enabled devices with headphones/speakers. The Receiver (RX) mode will enable you to get wireless audio signals from iPhone, iPad, or Android through Bluetooth and stream audio.

Long Range: The model has the highest Bluetooth range of the Class 1 model of version 5.0. As a result, it can offer stable & reliable connectivity up to 164 ft.

Pros:

  • Stable connectivity
  • Wide Compatibility
  • “dual-link” function
  • “Pass-Through” or “Bypass” feature

Cons:

  • Sound delay
  1. 1Mii Bluetooth 5.0 Transmitter Receiver

1Mii Bluetooth 5.0 Transmitter ReceiverDescription: The product comes with the recent Bluetooth 5.0 (CSR8675) version. Besides, it is compatible with Qualcomm aptX HD, aptX Low Latency, aptX, and AAC decoding. If you find the device supporting both codecs, you can switch them to alternate between HD and low latency.

It features a default ESS SABRE DAC recognized widely by audiophiles as a gold standard for audio performance. This standard can support the Qualcomm chip enabling you to enjoy a superior resolution, and it can offer an excellent signal-to-noise ratio 121dB. In addition, there presents a true Hi-Fi 384kHz/32-bit upsampling Audiophile Digital to Analogue Converter DAC. Finally, it enables you to use a 1Mii HiFi Adapter to decode and play audio files.

Features:

Long Range: The product has dual antennas and uses Class 1 Bluetooth technology. It can achieve up to 265ft line-of-sight in the open air and 80-110ft indoors. Wi-Fi routers, Wireless TV adapters, physical obstructions like walls, metal obstacles, etc., can affect operation range. However, the operation range relies on the receiver also.

No Lip Sync Delay: You won’t face any audio delay as it has AptX Low Latency technology. The long-range adapter is compatible with dual-link simultaneously, and the device supports two headphones or speakers.

Each device features ultra-fast audio streaming. However, if you are willing to experience low latency ( <40ms delay), the receiver needs to be compatible with AptX Low Latency, else experience a 70-220ms delay.

Simple to operate: You can use the model with ease. First, your task is to plug the audio cable and hit the Power button to start.

The adapter can identify the BT device quickly. It supports 99% of TVs, BT headphones or speakers, a Home stereo system, Optical, AUX, RCA Audio outputs/inputs.

Pros:

  • Easy to operate
  • Supports most televisions
  • No sync delay

Cons:

  • Hard to deal
  1. Anker Soundsync A3341

Anker Soundsync A3341Description: The product comes with a 2-in-1 Design that means a transmitter and receiver in one body. As a result, the model can support Bluetooth functions.

Version 5 offers transmission speeds two times quicker than Bluetooth 4.2. In addition, you can get a super stable connection over a distance of 33 ft (10 m).

Features:

No lag: The aptX Low-Latency helps decrease the delay between the audio and picture to undetectable levels to ensure that you are not experiencing any distracting lag.

Enjoyable: The model lets you connect two headsets to the TV in TX mode. Besides, it helps to pair two devices to a home stereo system for streaming music in receiver mode.

Accessories: It includes Anker sound sync A3341, Micro USB cable, aux cable, RCA cable, optical cable, 18-month warranty, and friendly customer service.

Pros:

  • 18-month warranty
  • Micro USB cable is available
  • Great customer service
  • No lag

Cons:

  • Short USB charging cord
  1. TROND V5.0 Bluetooth Transmitter Receiver

TROND V5.0 Bluetooth Transmitter ReceiverDescription: Along with a premium CSR8670 chipset, the model is also compatible with the latest Bluetooth V5.0. Besides, it features aptX and aptX Low Latency applicable to both the TX and RX modes. The aptX enables you to enjoy CD-quality sound wirelessly over BT connections with TV, phones, tablets, and other aptX-source devices. Besides, the aptX Low Latency allows you to watch a video and hear audio wirelessly at a time in a synchronized fashion. Moreover, you will not experience any audio delay in this case.

Plug the device into the non-Bluetooth audio sources like TV, iPod, MP3, or Kindle e-Book reader. Thus, it allows you to listen to top-quality songs wirelessly or enjoy night shows without irritating your family members. Moreover, you can use the device while charging. Besides, it comes with a default battery, compatible with the BT adapter, can last 9-10 hours per full charge.

Features:

Volume control: The adapter can upgrade the old wired headphones like Bose QC25/QC15 or speakers into wireless using aptX Low Latency. It has volume/track buttons used to play or pause music, turn volume up/down, and choose track forward/backward. However, you won’t find any hands-free calling feature without a microphone. Moreover, it is impossible to power up while starting the car ignition automatically.

Compact design: Coming in a round shape body, it has merely 0.61oz weight. The product supports most BT headphones, and you can store them at home with ease. Besides, you can carry while traveling to any location or taking a flight to enjoy music. However, you can use the RX-mode only in the car.

Compatibility: You should see if any AUDIO OUT socket is available in the TV’s back panel. You cannot use the BT-DUO S while inserting into any AUDIO IN/COMPONENT IN sockets. Whether you find your TV with one digital optical port for audio out, you can use another model.

Accessories: It includes a 3.5mm Bluetooth V5.0 Transceiver, 3.5mm male aluminum audio adapter, 3.5mm male audio cable, 3.5mm female to RCA male audio cable, USB to micro USB charging cable, user manual in English, etc. The audio cable is 50cm extra-long.

Pros:

  • 50cm extra-long audio cable
  • Compact design
  • Great aptX Low Latency

Cons:

  • Unable to hold pairing with AirPods
  1. ZIIDOO Bluetooth 5.0 Transmitter and Receiver

ZIIDOODescription: The product allows you to relax on your couch and watch TV with headphones, and it will not disturb any person staying in the room. The model enables you to stream music from phone or tablet to speakers easily.

Features:

Low Delay: It offers low latency while allowing you to enjoy high-fidelity stereo sound. Besides, it can share content without making any delays in TX mode. Therefore, you may need a low latency Bluetooth receiver.

Multi-function: There presents a portable adapter that you can use as both transmitter or receiver together with hands-free function.

Bluetooth: While the device is in TX mode, you can convert a computer, TV, CD player, iPod, MP3 / MP4 into a Bluetooth transmitter. On the other hand, the receiver mode is suitable for sound systems that transmit songs in the car or at home.

Easy to port: It has a BT adapter of compact design. The adapter comes in a small size, and it weighs light.

Enjoyable: You can see late-night TV shows without disturbing anyone in your house.

Pros:

  • Simple to port
  • Compact BT adapter
  • Multi-functional
  • Hands-free function

Cons:

  • High audio latency while using Bluetooth headphones

Buying guide of the Best Bluetooth Transmitter for TV:

The tool enables you to transmit audio from one device to another. It helps to add Bluetooth to those devices where the feature is unavailable. An old smart TV is an example of such a device without Bluetooth. It uses a wire to connect itself to the source device and transmit audio wirelessly to receivers like wireless headphones.

Transmission Range:

Two kinds of classes are available for the transmission range.

Class 1: It can offer approximately 100 meters to 300 feet of audio.

Class 2: It delivers an audio transmission ranging up to 10 meters, i.e., 33 feet.

You can get a good transmission range from these devices if no outside impact directly affects you. However, if you want to use it for home purposes, you should choose Class 2 models. There exist alternative methods to increase the range for Class 2, but it is not as high as Class 1.

People can buy extra accessories like cables or an audio hub for supporting the range expansion. Usually, brands come with their accessories to help customers.

Battery Life:

A built-in battery can allow you to operate it for 15 hours on average, and if you have a lower battery, it can last for only 12 hours. Devices that have dual functions can let you experience a significant drop in the battery percentage while the device is transmitting and receiving signals.

These come with a rechargeable battery that is handy for people who are willing to use them in the long run. It has a portable device and a lightweight battery that can save your time for packing. Moreover, you can enjoy your favorite music using it. Besides, a built-in microphone is helpful for business meetings.

Try not to use the gadget while charging because it can cause overheating and damage the battery. Multiple brands offer an anti-overheating battery as a solution. The battery provides enough charging time and can preserve energy, helping it last for a long time.

Transition Modes:

These devices can switch modes from transmitter to receiver and vice versa. It helps you to send audio to a remote gadget via TX mode. Besides, you can receive or play audio from a remote gadget in receiver mode.

Thus, use the device to turn on Bluetooth connection in non-Bluetooth audio sources. Besides, you can allow audio that you are receiving from your mobile and play via wired headphones or speakers. If you find these available at the same rate as transmitter-only models, you should go with TX/RX combo models. It is because buying these can offer you more bang for your buck.

Default Volume Control:

Built-in volume control is one of the aspects that you can consider while using the device. It helps to manage the volume on your device directly rather than changing it on the audio source itself. As a result, people can access it easily.

Audio Output Compatibility:

The device needs a wired connection between the TV’s audio output and the device’s audio input to connect to the device for the television.

Each television has various types of audio output. A few devices provide both digital and analog audio output, whereas a few models offer one of them. Ensure that the device caters to the proper type of audio connection. You may need to invest more money to buy a converter for the connection to work.

These are a few audio output devices that are compatible with such devices.

  • Digital Audio Output
  • Optical Audio (TOSLINK)
  • USB
  • Analog Audio Output
  • 5mm jack (AUX)
  • RCA (red- and white-colored)

Audio Codec:

The Bluetooth audio codec is a technology that can encode and decode audio. Therefore, it can affect the bandwidth and audio transmission quality. Besides, it may affect the latency of transmission.

We know the latency issue as the lip-sync problem. It can happen while a person on television speaks, and you will hear the audio some seconds later, and it can let you have a jarring listening experience.

The Bottom Line:

Always try to purchase a top-quality device to convert a wired device into a wireless one. The model is highly cost-efficient. It doesn’t matter which device you choose, and you should ensure that you will have the best performance. The best Bluetooth transmitter can let you experience minimal audio lag and the most extraordinary connectivity.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Can a Bluetooth device be compatible with products from different brands?

As per the Bluetooth Logo Certification program, all BT products support products from other manufacturers. Otherwise, these are unable to acquire the Bluetooth logo. The policy can offer people high flexibility while selecting products matching the purposes and budget. These devices can work efficiently with products from famous brands like Apple and Samsung.

  • How many devices can one device connect?

Generally, a device allows you to connect up to two devices. Products produced by a similar brand enable the device to pair up to four devices together. If people buy different products from various brands, accessories can support the pairing procedure.

  • Can a Bluetooth device transmit and receive at the same time?

The devices can transmit and receive various signals, but it relies on the design. For example, it indicates that while listening to music on the speaker, another person may connect the device with a game console. As a result, users will get seamless sound quality.

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How to Ping a Phone?

How to Ping a Phone?

As a mobile user, you may want to find the location of someone’s mobile like your kid, any employee, etc. Besides, you may need to check if your mobile is active or getting network connectivity. You can ping a phone in this case. Have you faced such a situation? You will be glad to hear that many ways help you hence. The process is known as ‘pinging a phone.’ In this article, you will learn how to ping a phone.

What does it mean to Ping a Mobile Phone?

Pinging a device indicates knowing the device’s location that you want to check. Almost all major operating systems are compatible with this network utility, and Android, iOS, and other operating systems support this feature.

Technically, ping means a signal to the mobile querying about its network location. Then, the mobile will respond to the request with the required details. This technology takes the help of the device’s GPS location.

Use-cases for Pinging a Phone:

Its primary purpose is to find the location of the mobile. However, there are a few reasons why you may want to find the location of a mobile.

  • It enables you to find the location of a phone you have lost or stolen.
  • Using the technology, you can watch your kid’s or employee’s location.
  • You can keep people with a criminal record.
  • Spy apps are used to perform the operations. You should know that spying on someone is illegal without their will.

How does pinging a phone technology work?

Two methods are there to locate a cell phone location by the cellular network provider— Pinging and Triangulation. The first is a digital method, whereas the second is an analog method to find a device location.

To “ping” indicates sending a signal to a specific mobile phone and getting a response with the requested data. While pinging a new digital mobile, it will determine the latitude and longitude through GPS, and then, it will send the coordinates back through the SMS system.

Why ping a mobile?

People use modern technology to find the location of a stolen or lost Android or iPhone device. Likewise, using the technology, you can track the live locations of criminal people.

Besides, the android spy app companies use the technology to keep track of users’ devices. So guardians who are willing to keep track of their kids’ location can use different spy apps.

However, without the person’s permission, spying on them or tracking a device’s location is illegal. So it would be best if you let the person know, like your kid, about using the technology before installing any spy apps.

How to Ping a Phone?

How to Ping a Phone?Multiple mobiles are there supporting the ping functionality. But mobiles released currently don’t come with the feature enabled. Therefore, if you are willing to ping the devices, you will require specialized apps on the mobile. PingD, Google Find My Phone, etc., are a few examples helping to return the ping request. Therefore, you should ensure that you have the apps installed and configured on the system before you proceed. Besides, remember that you cannot ping a mobile that is turned off. However, having a firewall installed on the system does not allow other devices to ping the mobile. Besides, if the AP Isolation feature is turned on the router, other devices may not work.

Ping from a Phone:

  • It would be best to launch the App Store or Play Store first. Then, look for Ping.
  • After that, you need to ping any app that you want. Of course, as soon as you install the app, it would be best to launch it.
  • After that, your job is to put the IP of the mobile. For example, you can enter 192.168.8.101 if it is the IP address. Next, tap on the Ping or Start option.

Use command prompt:

The process is applicable with Android mobiles only. Your first task is to tap on the ‘Windows’ key plus the ‘R’ option for opening the ‘Run’ box. Next, write ‘cmd’ in lowercase letters for bringing up the command prompt. Next, you should write ‘ipconfig,’ and tap on the ‘Enter’ option after that. It offers you the machine’s IP address if it is not available.

When you go to the following line of the command prompt, you must write ‘ping’ there. After that, you should complete the IP address of the mobile to get a ping to the mobile automatically. If it is successful, both the ping and a minimum of 2-3 lines of ‘Reply from’ the address appears. Every line represents a data packet that was sent.

It is a speedy process giving the actual data packets sent to the phone, not the technical ping only. Whether you face a problem, you should try to close the PC or mobile and reboot your wireless router. The issue may be an IP address error. Hence, the process helps send a ping only, and it won’t get any details about the user’s physical location.

GPS tracking software:

It is the quickest way to find a stolen android or iPhone mobile. With the help of GPS tracking software, you can track the location of your family and loved ones. Multiple GPS tracking software is available in free and paid versions. In addition, we have given a few GPS tracking software that helps you ping the device’s location.

  1. GOOGLE MAPS:

It is one of the effective GPS tracking apps for android and iPhone devices that help to find the device location. You can use the application for free for both android and iPhone devices. It allows you to adjust the sharing options. With the help of the latest technology, you can track the lost device’s location.

  1. LIFE 360:

This GPS tracking software lets you ping a phone to find its location. It has plenty of excellent features that help to find the lost device. Besides, it helps to track the location of your family members. Apart from this, many location tracking software is available on iPhone and Android OSs.

With the help of GPS tracking apps, you can find the live location of any device. But it is not possible if GPS is disabled on the device or you have installed fake GPS on the mobile.

Default phone mechanisms:

Take the help of the default mechanism of your mobile phone if the GPS location is disabled. It will help you to ping your mobile to find out the device’s location. Generally, android devices have a default feature called “Find My Device,” whereas iPhone devices have an inbuilt feature called Find My iPhone to track the device location.

The steps you should follow to use Find My Device are as follows:-

  • Your first task is to visit the site android.com/find.
  • Then, you should log in to your Google Account via Gmail details.
  • After that, while using the map, the live location of the device you want to find out will appear.
  • If you are willing, play a ringtone, delete the data, or lock the lost device remotely.

Spy Apps:

You can use a spy app to ping a mobile to know where it is. These apps are equipped with excellent and advanced features to monitor the lost mobile or that you want to track.

These enable you to use android and iPhone devices. The apps help track any person’s live location, read conversations, monitor social media chats, check browser history, record screens, listen to live phone calls & surrounding sounds, etc.

You can find multiple spy apps available in the market, allowing you to track both Android and iPhone devices.

Follow the guide to know how to ping a mobile using spy Apps.

  • Your first job is to make a new account from an Android or iPhone device.
  • After that, your task is to choose the mobile you are willing to monitor and check your call history.
  • Now, you should choose the plan as per the requirements.
  • Next, you must install the application on the device you want.
  • As soon as you complete installing, you can experience Wi-Fi or GPS data in real-time.

Ping from computer:

Taking help from the PC, you can also find out the device you have lost. Then, you should undergo the steps given here to ping mobile using a PC.

  • First, your task is to move to the “Settings” on your android phone and open it after

that.

  • After that, your task is to click on the “About Phone” option.
  • Now, hit the option “Status,” and you should get the IP address.
  • After that, your job is to power on the computer and look for the Windows Command Prompt.
  • Next, you should open the CMD or command prompt as “Run as Administrator.”
  • Write “ping” followed by the IP address of the android device, and next, you should tap on the “Enter” option.

How to Ping a Phone in macOS System:

You can use the macOS system to ping the mobile. However, if you are willing to ping a mobile from macOS, you must follow the steps.

  • Your first job is to go to the Finder and open it on the Mac, followed by Applications. If not, you should tap on the Command and A key to get the list of apps available.
  • Tap two times on Utilities and after that on the Terminal app.
  • While opening the terminal app, you need to write ping followed by the IP address of the mobile. For example, suppose you can ping 192.168.2.1.
  • You can see the results similarly to the Windows system.

How to Ping a Phone from ChromeOS systems:

Use the ChromeOS system if you are willing for this purpose. This one is a Google-developed OS available on the PlayStore in Chrome OS. However, it is beneficial if you use the default command prompt app.

  • If you are willing to open the command prompt application on ChromeOS, you should tap on the link ctrl, alt, and T keys to open it up.
  • Write ping followed by the IP address of the device. Use 192.168.2.1 for pinging.
  • Tap on “Enter” to start connection tests and the results after the test.
  • Thus, you can ping a mobile from a system running Android or iOS.

Tracing the phone number details:

By tracing the details of a mobile number, you can find out the location of a sim number or a device. In addition, multiple apps can bring universal caller ID services to your mobile, enabling you to track the mobile number.

You can take the help of the famous mobile number tracking apps like True caller, Showcaller, CallApp. These allow you to check the sim card name, registered place, etc. It is beneficial in finding fraud caller, unknown caller location details, etc.

Take help from the phone’s carrier:

The last method is to take help from your mobile carrier by contacting them. As soon as you contact your mobile phone carrier company, they will help you to find out the mobile you have lost. They trace the live location using the triangulation process and find out the device.

How Can you prevent your location from being tracked?

A few people are unwilling to have their phone’s location traced. These are the ways to prevent the location from being tracked.

Power Off the GPS Location: You should disable the live location of your phone. Thus, you can vanish from live tracing software’s reach.

Power On The Airplane Mode: You can prevent your location from being tracked by enabling the Airplane mood. It does not allow the device to send signals to the closest GPS towers.

Power Off Your Phone Completely: You can power off the mobile and take out the battery. Thus, you can prevent all the software or tracking device from tracking the location.

Power Off Location Services In mobile Settings: Your first job is to move to the phone’s location settings and then disable them.

How to ping mobile location for free with a phone company?

You should know that all iPhone and Android devices come with a default trigger, and it enables you to return all data regarding location and GPS to the actual cell service provider.

An option is available under the “Location Services” tab in the settings section. The data will remain protected with the service provider until you use the service data given by your mobile provider.

While switching to another phone provider, they will have the authorization to track location and maintain its history.

Mobile companies have different phone towers around the area covered. Therefore, when you move, your mobile connects to every tower.

The companies can triangulate your position depending on the tower you join. It is vital to know that 911 operators and service station operators can access location software, enabling them to expedite operations and respond in an emergency. Therefore, these are legal processes using which companies can ping the mobile, and thus, they will know your location.

How can you ping your mobile, which has been switched off?

It is not possible to ping a switched-off phone. As soon as you power off the mobile, you cannot track your device. The reason is that the signals don’t interact more with nearby GPS towers. Thus, it stops letting other devices know where it is. In this case, you can know the last active location of the mobile.

However, a few rates cases always exist. For example, you can detect signals from any switched-off mobile in war zones using NASA technologies. However, the details of these operations remain unknown. As per a report, NASA helped previously to find out the location of people. Usually, there is no way to track a closed mobile.

How to ping a cell phone tower in ping a mobile?

If you are willing to trace the original location of the last cell tower giving the signal to the kid’s phone, you need to ping the mobile. Using a wireless carrier, you can do the job. However, it is not legal to ping a mobile phone not registered to you if you don’t approve it.

Phase 1:

You should first contact the wireless carrier’s customer service department. After that, you should go through the prompts to speak to a representative.

Phase 2:

Let the representative know about your intention to ping the phone or the mobile registered in your account.

Phase 3:

You need to verify the wireless account while asked. In this case, you need to give the representative the mobile you are willing to ping.

Phase 4:

Wait till the representative is not pinging your mobile. Then, it may give you instructions to enroll in a mobile pinging service of your wireless carrier, enabling you to ping the mobile without assistance.

Phase 5:

You should note down the pinged location as soon as it appears.

How to find a lost iPhone:

Use Find My:

Using the Find My app, you can track the location of the Apple products, and it helps to find out the mobile on the map. While using Find My, you can easily know where the mobile is, and you don’t need to ping it. However, if you know that your iPhone is in your home but do not know where it is, the pinging will help you.

Launch the Find My there if an Apple device is attached to a similar Apple ID like iPhone. Otherwise, if you are willing, sign in to icloud.com and then select “Find iPhone.” If you want, select the iPhone from the list and then hit the “Play Sound” option to ping. Firstly, your device will start vibrating. After a while, it starts playing a high-pitched sound. The sound is playing continuously till you will not find your iPhone. Remember that you can stop the sound using the Find My device.

Use An Apple Watch:

Pinging becomes easier while iPhone and Apple Watch have a connection between them. It is very simple, like swiping up on the Apple Watch to the Glances mode. Choose the “ping” button available under other options such as airplane mode, do not disturb, and silent mode. It lets your mobile emit a high-pitched sound.

In addition, you can give instructions to your mobile to blink the LED by tapping the “ping” button and holding it. You may use the feature to find the mobile in a dark room.

Use Siri:

Take the help of Siri if you have any other iOS 12+ device attached to the account. It may be another mobile, iPad, PC, or Apple watch. If you are willing to use Siri, ensure that you have turned on Find My and Siri. Call Siri, and you will get a reply from her. As soon as she replies, you should say, “Siri, find my iPhone.”

Whether many devices are connected to the account, you must specify your mobile. Then, Siri will ask if you are willing to play a sound on the mobile to find out.

You should say “Yes.” Next, you will get an option to see a visual map of the location of the mobile.

From the Cloud:

If you don’t have many Apple devices, there might not exist a simple way to access Siri or the Find My app. If necessary, use a device of another person or your non-Apple device to sign in to iCloud, and it will help you to ping your missing iPhone.

If you are willing to do this, go to this www.icloud.com/find site and log in using your Apple ID and password. After that, your task is to choose the mobile you are willing to find from the list of devices. Then, you should tap on the “play sound” to ping the iPhone.

Whether you have enabled the two-factor authentication and want to log in to the Apple account from an unrecognized device, you should use a 6-digit verification code to bypass the two-factor authentication.

Conclusion:

If you have mistakenly lost your Android or iPhone, these hacks will help you find your mobile phone successfully. We hope that you will know now how to ping a phone.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Can you Ping mobile for location?

You cannot ping a mobile number directly without access to the carrier’s system, indicating that it has limitations to carriers and is within range.

  • Is it illegal to ping a cell phone?

A few federal laws are there applicable to cell phone pings. According to the regulations, you can make one thing clear tracing the mobile of someone without their permission is against the law. You can do this only in a criminal investigation or emergency 911 call.

  • Can a private investigator ping the cell phone?

As per federal law, private investigators are not allowed to monitor mobile conversations without the permission of at least one person based on the state.

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Memory Card: Complete Guide to Memory Cards

Memory Card: Complete Guide to Memory Cards

If you are willing to expand storage in your mobile, tablet, camera, or any handheld gaming system, the memory card is the card that you should use. There are many options available in the market, due to which you may feel confused. You should pinpoint the type, storage capacity, read/write speed, etc. Besides, you should know whether the card comes with data protection capabilities or not.

The best memory card always contains an adapter. Therefore, while you will buy this, you can find an adapter. The adaptors allow the devices to work with various types of memory cards. Some devices are available in the market, enabling you to use two types of memory cards or more. It is why you should figure out the best one that suits you most. This article contains the best memory card on the market, and it will help you select the suitable one for you.

What is a memory card?

A memory card is a storage device used to store digital data and electronic information using flash memory. It is a form of flash memory used in electronic gadgets like digital cameras or video game consoles. In addition, it helps store information, pictures, songs, saved games, other PC files, etc. Flash memory devices don’t have any moving parts, due to which these are not going to be damaged so easily.

What does a memory card do?

A memory card is used mainly for adding digital storage to a device. You only have to insert a small plastic rectangle item containing memory chips, and it can store files for a long time. People use the additional memory to expand the phone’s storage and keep videos, images, apps, audio files, games, etc.

How do memory cards work?

You should know first that a memory card is a typical device made of a plastic case & metal connectors. It contains many different technologies like flash memory, a controller, and other parts, and the latter quality determines both speed and quality.

File Allocation Table or FAT helps to arrange Memory card file locations. The files will not be erased while you delete any picture or data. It is the record from the table of contents, which is deleted. It indicates that your PC or other electronic devices cannot show the file location in a folder. However, the File you have deleted is still available on the memory card. You should know that these data remain stored on the memory card till you are not overwriting this. Therefore, if you have mistakenly erased the essential files, you should stop using this instantly. You can recover the deleted information with specialized software.

How do I use my memory card for storage?

If you find your mobile not prompting automatically, you should try the steps.

  • First, your job is to put your SD card on the Android mobile. Then, you should wait for this to be recognized.
  • Navigate to the Settings, and then move to the Storage section.
  • After that, your task is to click on the name of the SD card.
  • You can see three vertical dots available on the top right corner of your mobile display. Click on the dots.
  • Hit Storage Settings.
  • You are required to choose “Format” as an internal option.
  • Next, your job is to click on the Erase & Format at the prompt. At last, your Android device enables you to migrate the data.

Memory card sizes:

Generally, the memory card is available in 8GB, 16GB, 32GB, 64GB, and 128GB capacities. In addition, a few high-capacity cards are available, which can hold terabytes (TB) of data.

When you choose the best one to buy, the first thing you should note is their amount of storage. In short words, you can say this memory size. In some years, the memory sizes have boosted remarkably. Previously, 1GB size was enough for people, whereas 128 GB is not uncommon in recent times.

What types of devices need memory cards?

Nintendo Wii and devices that are similar to this use SD cards. The cards took off as the storage medium while photography, with cameras dispensing and film rolls.

Like digital cards, people use memory cards in smartphones to store data (images and music), camcorders for storing video, etc.

These are used in televisions, portable game devices, printers, DVD recorders, and other electronic devices. Plenty of televisions even has card slots that enable you to see any stored images on a big display. A few printers will allow you to print directly the pictures stored on a card.

It is possible to swap cards from one product to another. However, you should know that different devices use different memory card types. Whether there is a Memory Card in your device already, and you want to buy more gear, ensure that the card is similar.

Types of memory cards:

We have given here different types of memory cards available in the market. CompactFlash and Secure Digital ( Micro and Normal) are basic memory cards.

CompactFlash:

This type of card is specially designed for professional photographers. You can find CF cards in high-end DSLRs like Canon EOS-1D X Mark II. Compared to the size of SD cards, these come in a larger size but are used less commonly.

These are physically bulky than SD cards and less commonly used. Besides, CF cards have more significant capacities and enable you to run at very high speeds.

Secure Digital:

It is the basic format of the SD card. The thickness of the SD card is 2.1 mm, whereas the size is 32 mm x 24 mm. Their performance is quite good, but these are not as quick as other SD cards.

Its size is limited to 4GB above which anything will be an SDHC card.

Secure Digital High Capacity:

The SDHC card was designed to fulfill the high demands for high-definition photography and video. Like standard SD cards, these come in similar physical sizes and shapes. But these can fit the specifications of version 2.0. This type of card is limited to 64 GB above which anything will be considered an SDXC card.

It has classes— 2,4,6,8,10 with a minimum speed of 2 MB/s, 4 MB/s, 6 MB/s, 8 MB/s, and 10 MB/s.

Secure Digital Extended Capacity:

This type of card is a beefed-up SDHC card. Their range of size is between 64 GB and 2 TB.

SD – Up to 4 GB

SDHC – Between 4 – 64 GB

SDXC – Anything higher than 64 GB

There are two classes, 1 & 3, that come with a minimum speed of 10 MB/s and 30 MB/s.

Micro Secure Digital:

MicroSD card is a miniature version of an SD card. These come in 15 mm x 11 mm physical size with 1 mm thickness.

Micro Secure Digital High Capacity:

MicroSDHC or Micro Secure Digital High Capacity card is similar to the SDHC card, where you can store up to 32 GB of data. It came to the market in 2007 and allowed you to transfer up to 10 MB per second.

Micro Secure Digital Extended Capacity:

Format Focal Length F-number Crop Factor Equivalent Focal Length Equivalent Aperture

Full Frame comes with a focal length of 85 mm and F-number f/1.2. Its crop factor is 1, and 85 mm is the equivalent focal length. f/1.2 is its equivalent aperture.

APS-C has a focal length of 56 mm and F-number f/1.2. Therefore, its crop factor is 1.5, 84 mm is the equivalent focal length, and f/1.8 is its equivalent aperture.

42.5 mm is the focal length of Four Thirds, whereas f/1.2 is the F-number. Therefore, its crop factor is 2, 85 mm is the equivalent focal length, and the equivalent aperture is f/2.4.

Micro Secure Extended Capacity:

This type of micro card is similar to the SDXC, and it comes with a storage limit from 32 GB to 2 TB. However, the card can transfer data more quickly than the MicroSD and MicroSDHC.

MicroSD – Up to 4 GB

MicroSDHC – Between 4 – 32 GB

MicroSDXC – Anything more than 32 GB

Extreme Digital Picture Card:

This Digital Picture Card is a type of removable flash memory. The primary purpose for its use is in digital cameras. 20 mm x 25 mm is the compact size of the card, whereas 1.7 mm is its thickness.

Wifi Card:

wifi card is a memory card of a modern type, and this kind of card has a built-in wifi feature. The primary benefit of this card is that you can transfer the pictures to your cloud storage, PC, or mobile without the help of any cable. If the first one is filled, there is no need to replace any spare card. In this case, you are required to wait for a while to share the images with the cloud. Then, you should begin capturing images by clearing the space of the memory card.

Multimedia card:

You can use the MMC cards with the cameras compatible with SD cards. You can use the memory cards in the device and MP3 players. In this case, it is essential to remember that the MMC cards don’t contain any protection switch, and it indicates that your data may be wiped off automatically.

Memory Stick:

It is another kind of storage device manufactured by Sony initially for CyberShot. However, people still use this today, and it allows you to store information for only 256 MB.

Let’s have a look at the types in short—

  • PCMCIA ATA Type I Card (PC Card ATA Type I)
  • PCMCIA Type II, Type III cards
  • CompactFlash Card (Type I), CompactFlash High-Speed
  • CompactFlash Type II, CF+(CF2.0), CF3.0
Microdrive
  • CFexpress
  • MiniCard (Miniature Card) (limited to 64 MB / 64 MiB)
  • SmartMedia Card (SSFDC) (limited to 128 MB) (3.3 V,5 V)
  • xD-Picture Card, xD-Picture Card Type M
  • Memory Stick, MagicGate Memory Stick (size is limited to 128 MB); Memory Stick Select, MagicGate Memory Stick Select ( Here the term “Select” indicates 2×128 MB with A/B switch)
  • SecureMMC
  • Secure Digital (SD Card), Secure Digital High-Speed, Secure Digital Plus/Xtra/etc. (SD with USB connector)

miniSD card

microSD card (aka Transflash, T-Flash, TF)

SDHC

Wifi SD Cards

  • Nano Memory (NM) card
  • MU-Flash (Mu-Card) (Mu-Card Alliance of OMIA)
  • C-Flash
  • SIM card (Subscriber Identity Module)
  • Smart card (ISO/IEC 7810, ISO/IEC 7816 card standards, etc.)
  • UFC (USB FlashCard)
  • FISH Universal Transportable Memory Card Standard
  • Intelligent Stick ( a USB-based flash memory card with MMS)
  • SxS (S-by-S) memory card. SanDisk and Sony invented this new card specification.
  • Nexflash Winbond Serial Flash Module (SFM) cards. The range of its size is 1 MB, 2 MB, and 4 MB.

Why do we have different Memory Cards?

Each camera manufacturer generally uses different cards of various sizes & shapes. Along with the card, they also use different shapes of lens mounts, flange distances, lens sizes, batteries, wires, etc.

The cards are available in different sizes according to storage and physical shape. Manufacturers like Canon are willing to use Compact Flash (CF) memory cards, and other cards can use the smaller Secure Digital type.

Make sure that you have checked the camera specifications before buying the cards. If you want, then use the Micro Secure Digital with an adapter. However, it is not possible to make SanDisk memory cards smaller.

How much can I select a good memory card?

The amount of data you can store on the memory card relies on mainly three factors. These are — the device, data type you want to store, and the data quality.

When you use High megapixel cameras, you need to have more memory space for each shot than low-megapixel models. The type of information will always determine the amount you can fit on a card. Pictures need more space than text documents, whereas digital music can consume even more. Besides, video is another space hog.

It is the quality of the files that is the ultimate determining factor. The aspect will determine how much is possible for you to cram onto a memory card. The better quality you want to have, the more space it will require. Compared to the low-resolution shots, the high-resolution images need more memory space. Whether you shoot in RAW mode on your camera, every File will need more space than a standard JPEG image. If you want to store music compressed at a good quality, it can take additional space compared to those with average compression. We know this as bitrate also.

What is inside the memory card?

The memory card components are some transistors and an oxide film. These are used to construct the internal circuits of memory cards. The components are used to create two types of circuits: the floating and control circuits. First, you need to place the transistors to form a junction, and after that, you should derive a network with some rows and columns.

Oxide separation sheet is a significant component of the device, which you need to place in between both circuits. In addition, it helps to link the processing flow between the printed circuits.

What is the difference between a memory card and a secured digital card?

Memory card speed:

When it comes to speed, the memory cards can vary, and these depend on how they can read and write information. However, the speed ratings and the marking style vary according to the memory card type.

Speed classes:

Speed Class defines a minimum sequential writing speed offered by a memory card. A bus speed is also there that you can define as “UHS.”

It displays the theoretical maximum offered by a card over the bus. The UHS Speed Class and Video Speed Class specifications also define minimum sequential write speeds.

Bus interface:

We have given here different bus interfaces and their limits. Therefore, this short table can summarize different bus interfaces.

 

Bus Interface Compatible Memory Cards Maximum Bus Speed
High Speed SD, SDHC, SDXC 25 MB/sec
UHS-I SDHC, SDXC 104 MB/sec
UHS-II SDHC, SDXC 312 MB/sec
UHS-III SDHC, SDXC 624 MB/sec

 

Here, you can see a massive difference between High Speed, UHS-I, UHS-II, and UHS-III cards for maximum bus speed. The original cards have speeds like 25 MB/sec, whereas the UHS-I bus interface has a speed of 104 MB/sec.

The new UHS-II bus can multiple the speed at 312 MB/sec three times. The new UHS-II standard came to the market recently, but it can enable insane speeds of up to 624 MB/sec.

You should know that cards with a quick bus speed need a memory card reader/writer to support the bus speed. For instance, when you buy a memory card with a UHS-II bus interface, you should ensure that the card slot on the camera should support UHS-II. Otherwise, you can experience different reliability problems. The same thing is applied to a memory card reader on the PC, and it should support UHS-II for supporting the higher speeds.

What is an UHS speed class?

UHS stands for Ultra High Speed, and it is the quickest performance category. The UHS speed class lets you know bus-interface speeds of a maximum of 312 MB/S. Its primary purpose is for SDHC and SDXC memory cards, which support SDHC and SDXC devices.

It comes with two ratings within the UHS Speed Class:

U1 (UHS Speed Class 1): 10 MB/s is the minimum write speed of UHS Speed Class 1.

U3 (UHS Speed Class 3): 30 MB/s is the minimum write speed of UHS Speed Class 3.

It was the SD Association that introduced the UHS Speed Class in 2009. This one uses a new data bus that cannot work in non-UHS host devices. If you use this type of memory card in a non-UHS host, the standard data bus “Speed Class” rating becomes default rather than the “UHS Speed Class” rating. The cards have a full higher potential that allows you to record real-time broadcasts to capture large-size HD and professional HD videos.

Video Speed Class:

This class offers the quickest speeds available. It is perfect for ultra-high-resolution videos, top-quality videos, multi-file recording in drones, and 360-degree cameras. The speed class is compatible with HD formats up to 8K video in drones. Besides, it supports action cams, 360-degree cameras, and VR cameras.

V6 (Video Speed Class 6): 6 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 6.

V10 (Video Speed Class 10): 10 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 10.

V30 (Video Speed Class 30): 30 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 30.

V60 (Video Speed Class 60): 60 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 60.

V90 (Video Speed Class 90): 90 MB/s is the minimum write speed of Video Speed Class 90.

Video Speed Class is also referred to as “V Class.” The SD Association created the speed class to determine cards to manage higher video resolutions and recording features. In addition, the speed class can guarantee minimum sustained performance to record videos.

The other speed classes can not be optimized. Besides, these can’t accommodate the recording of multiple video streams, 360  capture, virtual reality content, etc.

What is Minimum sequential write speed:

‘Sequential Read/Write Speed’ indicates the quick speed at which the drive can write or read the data from a series of blocks. Speed classes like the UHS speed class or video speed class define minimum sequential write speed.

How safe is the data stored on memory cards?

If you are thinking about the safety of your information, then these have a few unique benefits compared to hard disks or CDs/DVDs. First, these are more shockproof compared to other storage mediums. However, if it is a standard hard drive, there is a chance of damage due to moving parts.

Compared to CD/DVD, these are far less fragile. A memory card can take a scratch or two. But when it comes to scratches for a CD or DVD, you may experience data loss or an unreadable disk. Some cards are available that are so small that they can lose the whole card itself instead of by some other accident.

Card Formats:

 

Name Form Factor (mm) Abbreviation DRM
PC Card 85.6 × 54 × 3.3 PCMCIA No
CompactFlash 43 × 36 × 3.3 I CF-I No
CompactFlash 43 × 36 × 5.5 II CF-II No
CFexpress 38.5 × 29.8 × 3.8 CFX Unknown
SmartMedia 45 × 37 × 0.76 SM/ SMC ID
P2 card 85.6 × 54 × 3.3 P2 No
SxS 75 × 34 × 5 SxS No
SD card 32 × 24 × 2.1 SD CPRM
microSD card 15 × 11 × 0.7 microSD CPRM
xD-Picture Card 20 × 25 × 1.7 xD No
Intelligent Stick 24 × 18 × 2.8 iStick No
Serial Flash Module 45 × 15 SFM No
MMC micro Card 12 × 14 × 1.1 MMC micro No
Reduced Size MultiMediaCard 16 × 24 × 1.5 RS-MMC No
Multimedia Card 32 × 24 × 1.5 MMC No
Memory Stick Pro-HG Duo 31.0 × 20.0 × 1.6 MSPDX MagicGate
Memory Stick Pro Duo 31.0 × 20.0 × 1.6 MSPD MagicGate
Memory Stick Duo 31.0 × 20.0 × 1.6 MSD MagicGate
Memory Stick 50.0 × 21.5 × 2.8 MS MagicGate

 

Name

Form Factor (mm) Abbreviation DRM
Nano Memory card 12.3 × 8.8 × 0.7 NM Card Unknown
XQD card 38.5 × 29.8 × 3.8 XQD Unknown
NT Card NT 44 × 24 × 2.5 NT+ No
µ card 32 × 24 × 1 µcard Unknown
Universal Flash Storage ? UFS Unknown
Memory Stick Micro M2 15.0 × 12.5 × 1.2 M2 MagicGate

Memory Card Best Practices:

  • You should keep the card consistently formatted in the camera. When you format your card, it will erase all images. You can format it in two ways— in the camera or on the PC. However, you should know that it is better not to format a card on the PC. It cannot generate the proper directory for the camera, and the files are not saved accurately.
  • You should not use one card in many cameras. Make sure that you are not using the same one in different camera brands. The reason is that you may damage the card via overlapping incorrectly. Whether you want to switch cameras, you should format the card in the new camera again before using it.

Best Practices:

  • Use a card for one year at least. However, you should not leave cards inactive for a long time.
  • You should use cards with smaller capacities. It may happen that you have lost cards, broken them, gotten corrupted, etc. As you are not willing to lose the huge data amount, it is recommended to use 64GB or 32GB cards. However, if you are an experienced videographer, you will need higher-capacity cards.
  • Ensure that you are using a card reader for sharing images. With the help of card readers, you can transfer pictures quickly. Besides, these corrupt your card far less compared to a USB cable while being used to the PC directly.
  • You should not use a microSD card in a slot for an SD card. It is because microSD cards are available at a low price. However, in this case, the adapter piece is not designed to handle the data amount necessary for your computer, and it can damage your card or corrupt your data. Therefore, you should only use the microSD cards in native devices, such as drones, action cameras, or mobile devices. In this case, you can use the adapter piece to download your files on the PC.

How to Store Your Memory Cards:

We have given here three methods to store memory cards.

Method 1:

How to Mount a Micro SD Card for Android Phones

Step 1:

You should first see whether your mobile is compatible with SD expansion or not. Multiple new mobiles are trending away from SD cards’ use. You can check the user manual or visit the manufacturer’s web page to check if it is compatible with SD cards.

Whether your mobile cannot offer SD card support, take the help of cloud-based storage service to get additional storage. Google Drive is an example of a cloud-based storage service.

Step 2:

Now, you are required to turn off the mobile. If you are willing to do this, tap the power key on the right side of the mobile. After that, your job is to hit the Power Off option, and you should select the “Power Off” option again to shut down the device.

Step 3:

Next, your job is to insert your Micro SD card into the SD card slot. In most cases, for newer mobiles, the SD card is available in the SIM card tray. If you are willing to install a SIM card, you should first find the SIM card tray. Sometimes, it is available on the side of your mobile, and there exists a little oval-shaped compartment having a pinhole on the side. You should now use a paperclip or the SIM card removal tool available with the mobile. Insert the removal tool in the pinhole and then remove the tray by pressing the tool down. After that, your task is to keep the SD card in the holder. Now, insert the SD card again in your mobile.

Step 4:

Now, your job is to turn on the android device. Then, you should hit the Power button available on the side to switch on the mobile. You should wait for some time to boot up this.

Step 5:

You need to click on the Mount when prompted. Multiple new mobiles mount the SD card automatically without offering a prompt. However, a few mobiles ask whether you are willing to mount the SD card or not, and you should hit the option Mount if prompted to mount the SD card.

Step 6:

After that, your task is to mount the card manually. If you have mounted the SD card earlier or cannot mount it automatically, you should use the steps to mount the card manually.

  • Your first job is to move to the Settings menu and open it.
  • Then, your task is to hit the option SD and Phone Storage.
  • Hit the option, Mount.

Step 7:

You should format the SD card again and then mount it. If the mobile identifies your SD card right away, it is okay. Otherwise, you can format the SD card and, after that, mount after formating. It helps to erase all information on your card. Ensure that you have backed up and stored all your data if you are willing to keep any data on the SD card. Then, perform the steps to format the SD card.

  • Your first job is to navigate to the Settings menu and open it.
  • Hit the SD and Phone Storage option.
  • Then, hit the Reformat option available under the SD card.
  • Click on the Mount option as soon as the SD card finishes the formatting process.

Step 8:

Use the Files app for accessing the SD card. With the help of the Files app, you can easily access all files stored on the card. If the app is not available on your mobile, navigate to the Google Play Store to download the Files application.

Method 2:

Mounting an SD Card for Galaxy Phones

Perform the first three steps as previously.

In step 4, you should power on the mobile. After that, tap on the button at the mobile’s bottom. If the mobile does not Power on, it may need to be plugged in. In this case, you should connect your device with the wall charger for 15 minutes. Then, you should try this again.

Step 5: Same as previous

Step 6:

  • Perform the steps hence.
  • Head towards the Settings menu, and then you should open this.
  • Hit the Device care option.
  • You should click on storage.
  • Next, your job is to hit the SD card option.
  • Click on the Mount option after that.

Step 7:

For formatting and mounting the SD card, you must perform the steps.

  • Go to the Settings menu first and then open it.
  • After that, your task is to click on Device care.
  • Now, hit the Storage option.
  • Click on the SD card option.
  • Hit the Format option.
  • Click on the SD card.
  • Finally, your task is to click on the Mount option.

Method 3:

Check for Hardware Problems:

Step 1:

Your job is to unmount the SD card, and then you should remount it. If you face difficulties while accessing the card, perform the steps for unmounting and remounting. After that, check if the error exists.

  • Your first job is to move to the Settings menu and open it.
  • Next, you should hit the Storage or SD and Phone Storage option. Finally, you can get the option below Device care.
  • Next, your job is to click on the SD Card option.
  • After that, hit the option Unmount.
  • Now, you should click on the SD card.
  • Finally, your task is to hit Mount.

Step 2:

Remove this and then go for the inspection to check if it is damaged. You should search for the missing gold prongs. Now, check to ensure that no dents or damaged areas are on the card.

Step 3:

You should now clean the card. If the card looks dirty, then use a soft cloth and some lukewarm water or metal cleaner to clean. Ensure that the card is dry entirely before reinserting this into the card.

Step 4:

Try to mount the card again. As soon as you remove the SD card and inspect this for dirt, you should insert this again back into the device. Then, remount this again. Sometimes, you can get rid of the problem by ejecting and reinserting.

Step 5:

You should again format the card in exFAT or FAT32 format. If you have used this on another device, it may format in the wrong Format. Format it again. It helps to remove all information from your SD card, and you should insert this into an SD card reader. Then, perform the steps to reformat the card in the correct Format.

  • Your first job is to tap on Ctrl + E to open File Explorer.
  • Then, you should hit the PC.
  • After that, your job is to tap on the SD card.
  • Next, you should tap on Format.
  • Choose the exFAT (recommended) or FAT32 option under “File System.”
  • Finally, you should tap on the Start option.

Step 6:

You can check the card on different devices if it cannot mount accurately. If you find your gadget working in another device, ensure that the SD card slot can be the culprit. But if the card cannot mount even on another device, you have to replace the SD card. Ensure that you have charged your device entirely before putting the Sd card into another device.

Memory Card Readers:

Your PC may not contain the actual default memory card reader, or there may not be any card reader. Card readers allow you to use them efficiently. In addition, there are portable attachments that need to be plugged into a USB port to share images, videos, etc., to your memory card. These come in a huge variety with various combinations.

How to insert a Memory Card into your PC?

If you are willing to use a memory card, plug it into the proper card slot. You can do this directly on the console of the PC or through a memory card adapter connected to a USB port. Windows detects the card immediately and mounts this into the system. As a result, you will see the available data instantly.

Make sure that you should not put force on a memory card to insert it into a slot. If you cannot get the card into one slot, you should use a different slot. These are inserted labels side up, and you should insert label-left for the mounted memory card readers vertically.

You can see the AutoPlay dialog box available when you have inserted the card. You should use a dialog box to select the “how to view the card’s contents” option. For instance, you should choose the View Pictures option for seeing pictures stored on the card from a digital camera.

Best Five Memory Cards:

1.SanDisk 128GB Extreme Pro UHS-I SDXC

SanDisk 128GB Extreme Pro UHS-I SDXCDescription: SanDisk offers its products in 32 GB, 64 GB, 128 GB, 256 GB, 512 GB or 1 TB storage options. This product has a read speed of a maximum of 170MB per second, while the write speed is a maximum of 90 MB per second. It helps shoot 4K videos and store them using the digital camera.

It is temperature proof as well as X-Ray proof. Besides, the device offers a free code to download the Rescue Pro Deluxe data recovery software. This one is for both Windows and Mac computers.

Features:

Speed: It has a shooting speed of up to 90MB/s, whereas the transfer speed is up to 170MB/s. In this case, you need to use a compatible device to reach the speeds. For example, the SanDisk SD UHS-I card reader is a device that can be used. But it is sold separately.

Internal testing: It depends on the internal testing. Besides, you can get reduced performance relying on the host device, interface, usage conditions, etc.

Shoot: The product is ideal for shooting 4K UHD video and sequential burst mode photography. It is compatible with Full HD (1920×1080) and 4K UHD (3840 x 2160) video support. However, these rely on the host device, file attributes, etc.

UHS video and speed: The UHS Speed Class 3 (U3) and Video Speed Class 30 (V30) help to capture uninterrupted video. Besides, the UHS Speed Class 3 is designed in such a way that it helps to offer a 4K UHD video recording feature. Moreover, it comes with a sustained video capture rate of 30 MB/s. In addition, the product is designed to provide support to real-time video recording with UHS-enabled host devices.

Ideal for harsh conditions: The device is temperature-proof, waterproof, shockproof, and X-ray-proof. It allows you to store images that you have deleted accidentally.

Pros:

  • Waterproof
  • Perfect for harsh conditions
  • Support 4K UHD (3840 x 2160) video support

Cons:

  • Won’t work when it reaches 100 GB
  1. SAMSUNG EVO Select Micro SD Memory Card

SAMSUNG EVO Select Micro SD Memory CardDescription: It enables you to use different SD and micro SD devices. Besides, you can capture 4K UHD videos in detail. Moreover, it comes with an SD adapter that allows you to use it under almost each brand name.

The device lets you record 4K UHD videos and play them without glitches. It has a reading speed of up to 100MB/s per second, whereas the write speed is 90MB/s. These superfast speeds enable you to share a 3GB video to the notebook in only 38 seconds. Now, you can capture top-quality images and videos and share them instantly. Due to its vast capacity and high read/write speeds are ideal for 4K UHD video. Users can save almost every moment with the help of this product.

Features:

Capture & share files: The product is suitable for high-resolution photos, gaming, songs, tablets, laptops, action cameras, drones, smartphones, Android devices, etc.

Long-lasting: It keeps all the data and memories safe against extreme temperatures, water, as well as other harsh conditions. The product is temperature proof, Waterproof, as well as magnetic proof.

Capacity to Live Largely: The product offers a considerable space of 512GB. It is ideal for 24 hours of 4K UHD video, 78 hours of Full HD video, 150,300 photos, or 77,300 songs.

Pros:

  • 512 GB space
  • Durable
  • Lasts long
  • Suitable for tablets, phones, laptops, etc.

Cons:

  • Maybe corrupted
  1. Gigastone Gaming Plus 512GB MicroSD Card

Gigastone Gaming Plus 512GB MicroSD CardDescription: It is best for Nintendo Switch. Generally, it has 32GB or 64GB of internal storage that relies on the model. So whether you are willing to store plenty of downloaded games and related data within a handheld console, you can go with this one.

You can use the product for this purpose, although it is not recommended by Nintendo officially. The read speed is 100MB per second, whereas the write speed is 60MB per second. Therefore, it helps to share files quickly and save time. This device is ideal if you play high-action games.

Features:

Design: It is mainly designed for gaming consoles. The A1 spec offers high-speed data transfer that is suitable for game professionals.

Support: The product enables you to use it for laptops, tablets, PC, Smartphones, Cameras, and e-Reader.

Environment: It is shockproof and X-Ray proof. Besides, it offers protection from water and temperature.

Warranty: The product comes with a 5-year limited warranty.

Pros:

  • 5-year limited warranty
  • Temperature proof
  • Compatible with laptop, tablet, etc.

Cons:

  • SD cards can’t be identified and formatted
  1. Kingston 128GB microSDXC Canvas React Plus

Kingston 128GB microSDXC Canvas React PlusDescription: Are you using two cameras or devices— one is compatible with an SD card, whereas the other one is with a microSD card? Then, you should use this with an adapter. The product is equipped with an SD adapter and a MobileLite Plus USB card reader. This USB reader can work as a discounted bundle.

The 128GB storage capacity and U3, V90, and UHS-II rating make the product ideal to use. Its data transfer speed is a maximum of 285MB per second, whereas the recording speed is 165MB per second. In addition, this device allows you to shoot video at up to 8K UHD resolution, ideal for higher-end action cameras.

Features:

Professional camera: The product’s ultimate speed allows you to use a professional camera. Therefore, people who are professional creators.

UHS-II standard: This device is ideal for high-resolution photography and video recording. It can shoot 4K and 8K Ultra-HD high-speed videos without dropping frames.

MicroSD Reader: It has a MobileLite Plus microSD Reader that helps share data quickly.

Pros:

  • MobileLite Plus microSD Reader is available.
  • Don’t drop frames
  • Ideal for professional creators

Cons:

  • Throws file system errors
  1. PNY Pro Elite Class

PNY Pro Elite ClassDescription: Do you want to have huge storage from a high-end flash memory card? Then, the product is ideal for use. It is slightly on the costlier side, but the features justify everything.

100 MB per second is the superfast read speed, whereas the write speed is 90 MB per second. It can deliver performance in any situation. The product comes with 1 TB of storage that can keep plenty of high-quality images and videos.

Features:

Performance: It is ideal for professional photographers and videographers due to its good performance.

Class 10, U3 rating: It offers speed and performance for the burst mode HD photography & 4K Ultra HD videography.

Video speed rating: The V30 video speed rating allows you to shoot uninterrupted 4K Ultra HD video at 4096×3072 Format​.

Support cameras: It supports point & shoot cameras, DSLR cameras, standard & advanced HD-enabled video cameras, etc.

Durable: It is shockproof, waterproof, temperature proof, etc.

Pros:

  • Magnet proof
  • V30 video speed rating
  • Class 10, U3 rating
  • Professional photographers

Cons:

  • Costly

Memory Card Buying Guide:

You can find modern DSLR and mirrorless cameras, mostly with memory card slots. If you are willing to use this, insert it into the camera supporting it. Remember the aspects before you are going to buy a new memory card.

While selecting the best one, it may seem that the biggest card is best. Whether you capture many pictures without importing them to the PC, you should use a giant card. It is suitable for travel photographers as they can go days without sitting down. The drawback, in this case, is whether you have lost the card; no pictures will be available after that. But when it comes to a small card, you may need to back up the pictures.

Professionals use cards in high-end DSLRs, which come with more extensive storage. The reason is that the size of the images is bigger. It is used if someone is shooting Raw, and in this case, the files are larger than 25MB each.

However, if you are willing, then go with the fastest card. It helps to write images quickly. But if it is quicker than a camera, then it is of no use. You can use the fastest memory cards, but you need to invest a lot of money in this.

If a DSLR captures four fps, you don’t need to choose one with quick writing speed. Instead, people who are looking for affordable ones can use a slower card.

The fastest cards are essential for the professionals who cover sports or news photography. It helps to buffer pictures when you capture them. So go with the best one as you never want to lose out in the photography field for having a cheaper model.

Compatibility:

Memory cards are suitable only when these enable you to use the proposed camera. For instance, you can use a MicroSDXC in a MicroSDXC-compatible slot.

UDMA Rating:

It is the short form of Ultra Direct Memory Access rating. These come with 0-7, where 0 is the lowest and seven is the highest. You should know that all devices don’t support all types of speeds. Therefore, ensure that you have checked twice before buying.

Reading Speed:

Make sure that you have selected the rate at which the pictures are downloaded to the PC.

Writing Speed:

You should consider the writing speed rate at which the card can record and store the pictures you have captured, and it is the vital speed that needs to be considered. Using an adapter, you can use the MicroSD cards as standard SD cards.

Capacity:

It is one of the significant aspects you must consider before buying. You obviously don’t want to use a memory card with a low capacity that cannot fulfill the demands. Hence, you should select the factor that relies on the number of shots taken in a single event.

Multiple photographers are there who want to use 64 G lB memory cards. These can store images up to 1500 to 2000 in RAW Format. It is advised to use a memory card with at least 64 GB of capacity. Those who shoot in RAW Format need to have such cards. On the flip side, if you want to store jpeg format, go with a memory card with 16 or 32 GB. Those willing to shoot videos should use one with a larger capacity.

Speed:

This is a significant factor that can make a good experience by storing images or breaking them. You may not want to wait for hours to share pictures from the card to the PC. SD cards are available with a limited speed and are used for reading and writing.

The reading speed indicates the amount of time a card takes to read images from its memory while sharing. Besides, the writing speed indicates the amount of time a card takes to store pictures or other information in its memory. So while you are going to shoot videos, writing speed becomes a vital factor. And when you share photos from the card, then the reading speed is the crucial one.

Price:

It is an important aspect you are willing to consider before buying anything despite its use and type. The CF cards cost higher compared to SD cards, and it is because they come with better speed and UDMA 7 technology. If you want a higher speed card, it will cost more. Therefore, if you consider the capacity, you should select a card with more capacity.

Ultra-High-Speed Class & Video Speed:

When it comes to SDXC and SDHC memory cards, you find an Ultra High Speed or UHS. These come with quick write speeds, ranging from 10 MB per second to 350 MB/ s. The feature is suitable for continuous & high-definition images. In addition, you can get the SD cards available, optimized for 3D recordings & 8K videos.

Memory Card Tips:

  1. You should not purchase a memory card of the wrong type. Ensure that you know the type used by your digital camera, mobile phone, or games device. After considering the factors, you should invest your money. Then, check whether you have bought the right one or not.
  2. Make sure that you don’t become dependable on the device’s included memory. A few devices feature bundled memory cards, indicating that you can use this straight out of the box. Unfortunately, the bundled cards are available at the bottom of the capacity spectrum, which means that you can’t store data very much.
  3. Allow your hardware to determine the memory card size. Try to buy memory cards that have large capacities. These are not only easy to use, but also they are helpful for some devices. For instance, cameras shooting full HD can chew up more memory space per video.
  4. In the market, there are a lot of models available, which are made out of multiple manufacturers. Many of these offer similar performance and have the same speed. However, all cards don’t have the same features. It is because these consist of different components and manufacturing standards. If there is already a cheaper generic card available, keep using it. Otherwise, you can use cards from famous brands.
Precatuions:
  1. It is essential to take care of the cards. Compared to other storage forms, Flash memory is more potent. However, it needs a little TLC to keep your information secured. You should always format a new memory card in the camera before you use this to take images. A few cameras will not work if you have already formatted the card on another device. You should keep the cards in a case while not using this. Ensure that you are not removing the card when the device is active.
  2. Are you making a trip for your holidays? Then, don’t buy one card only. You should know that Flash memory is available at low prices. Therefore, it is better to stock up these cards before visiting any location or making a trip. In addition, it is recommended to purchase some small capacity cards like 4 or 8 GB versions. Use these as storage despite using the 32 GB model only. The reason is that if you have lost your card, or it gets corrupted or stolen, you will lose all the images.

The Bottom line:

In this article, we have given brief details about the memory card. In addition, we have also included the top five best memory cards in the market.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • For which purpose is a memory card used?

These previously come in a range from 8 to 512 MB storage space. However, the new models can store up to 8 GB of data. It is used to store pictures in digital cameras. Besides, you can store and share programs & information between handheld PCs like pocket PCs and Palm OS.

  • Is a SIM card a memory card?

A sim card has a connection with the mobile carrier. Besides, it needs to be compatible with the features on your device. It helps to store data like images or videos only.

  • Which is the best memory card?

The best memory cards are:

  • SanDisk 128GB Class 10 microSDXC
  • Samsung EVO Plus 32GB microSDHC
  • SanDisk 32GB Class 10 Micro SDHC HP 64GB Class 10 MicroSD
  • Strontium Nitro A1 128GB Micro SDXC
  • SanDisk 64GB Extreme microSDXC

 

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How to Fix a Corrupted SD Card?

How to Fix a Corrupted SD Card

It may happen that you are using your SD card, and it fails suddenly without warning. In most cases, SD cards display tell-tale signs of corruption/damage before they stop working. Whether you can recognize the signs, you can backup your data in time. Then, you can fix the problem. This article lets you know how to fix a corrupted SD card.

How to Fix a Corrupted SD Card:

These are some Ways to fix a corrupted or damaged SD card.

  1. Try another USB Port or change Adapter or Card Reader:

It is one of the most straightforward processes that you can try. That’s why you need to try this method first, and then you are required to move on to other fixes to solve the issue.

Whether you are using a laptop with a default SD card reader, buying a USB card reader is advised. You should try different types of USB ports, and it will be better if you use these more than one computers.

  1. Try CHKDSK Command for Checking Memory Card Issues:

A command-line utility exists in all types of windows, allowing you to check a volume’s file system and file system metadata. We know the utility as CHKDSK, and the command is simpler to use than you think.

If you are willing to solve issues related to a corrupted SD card with the help of a CHKDSK command, you should perform the steps.

  • Your first job is to write “cmd” in the search box that you can see available on the taskbar. After that, you are required to choose Run as administrator.
  • Next, you need to put the command given below, and after entering the command, you should tap Enter. Ensure that you have replaced X with the letter assigned to your SD card.

chkdsk X: /f

Here, this /f parameter says the utility to fix your memory card.

  • Now, you should wait for a while till the CHKDSK process is not finished. This method can take some hours, but it relies on the size of your SD card.

You can use all the methods given in this article to fix a corrupted SD card. These help to fix all types of SD cards.

  1. Use SD Card Data Recovery Software:

When your SD card becomes corrupted and damaged, it may happen that you have lost your essential files. If you want to get these back, you must use SD card data recovery software. There are plenty of data recovery software available online.

Most of the online data recovery software is compatible with all SD card types, such as SD, SD High Capacity (SDHC), and SD Extended Capacity (SDXC). It helps to recover documents, images, videos, etc., quickly. In addition, the recovery solution allows you to preview recoverable files before recovery.

That enables you to recover up to 500 MB. In addition, the tool features a few helpful data protection and backup features, which help to learn to keep your SD card secured against future data loss.

If you are willing to recover files with the help of the data recovery software, then perform the steps—

  • In this case, you should first download the software and install this after that.
  • Next, you need to attach your SD card to the PC, and then you should launch the tool.
  • Now, you have to choose your SD card, and after that, tap on the Search for lost data.
  • You are required to check files that you have recovered.
  • Then, you should tap on the Recover button at the bottom.
  • You should now specify your destination for recovery. Then, tap on OK to start the recovery process of the files.
  1. Use Card on Another Computer:

It may happen that the SD card that you use is working correctly. Therefore, problems that you experience are caused by the PC. In this case, you need to use the card on other PCs or devices to rule out the chance.

Hence, if necessary, you can take help from any of your friends, so they will allow you to use their PC. In addition, you may go to a public library and use any PC. Thus, you can verify your problems to check if it is occurring on other devices.

Want to diagnose a microSD card? If you have a mobile where a microSD card slot is available, you can use the device as an easy-to-use test device. You can verify the card’s functionality without a PC if you want. However, you need to be careful because your device may need to format your SD card. Therefore, you should ensure that you are not erasing this accidentally.

  1. Assign a New Drive Letter:

Multiple SD card issues are there, which you can solve by assigning a new drive letter to the SD card. These errors usually have something to do with conflicting drive letters.

If you are willing to assign an updated drive letter to an SD card, you must perform the steps.

  • You should first navigate the search box and write “disk management” there. You can see the box on the taskbar. Then, you should choose the Create and format hard disk partitions.
  • Next, you need to tap on the SD card. Then, you should choose the ‘Change Drive Letter and Paths…’ option.
  • Now, you have to tap on the ‘Change…’ button.
  • After that, you should choose a new drive letter and then hit OK.
  • Lastly, you should tap on OK again to turn off the Change Drive Letter and Paths window.

Conclusion:

This article lets you know how to fix a corrupted SD card. First, make sure that the memory card you have should support your mobile device. Try always not to lose data. That’s why you should follow the right processes to fix the corrupted SD Card problems. If you cannot solve the problem through these methods, then use some online SD card recovery services. Finally, ensure that you have chosen the correct memory card to strike a balance between a memory card and your device.

Frequently Asked Questions: 

  • Can a corrupted SD card be reused?

Yes, you can use this unless physical damage is the reason behind corruption. Then, after fixing the corruption problem, you can reuse the SD card.

  • Why does an SD card get corrupted?

A few common reasons for SD card error are—  improper use, malware, accumulated bad sectors, manufacturing defects, and physical damage.

  • Is it possible to recover photos from a damaged SD card?

Yes, it is possible to recover images from a corrupted SD card. But it relies on the condition of your card.

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Printer Driver is Unavailable Error on Windows — Fixing

Printer Driver is Unavailable Error on Windows — Fixing

Generally, the Printer has excellent usage. Your Printer may run for a long year, but it doesn’t mean that it will not malfunction. It can also stop giving responses completely. We have given here a few basic printer problems, and this blog post will assist you in fixing the printer driver is unavailable issue related to Printer.

Sometimes, you can experience a “Printer Driver is unavailable” error while printing documents. For HP printers, it is very common. However, other brand drivers can face trouble also. For example, Epson printers face an “Epson printer driver is unavailable error” that occurs frequently.

When this error message appears in front of the display, it indicates that the Printer’s software is not installed correctly on the PC. Besides, it also happens that your device drivers are facing troubles. However, we are fortunate that there are methods to fix the issue.

What does ” Printer Driver is Unavailable” on Printer indicate?

The error indicates that your Printer’s driver has a specific problem that doesn’t allow your Printer to work with the PC correctly. It can be available as a status on your Windows driver software.

The issue typically occurs while the printer driver is not corrupted or up-to-date. Besides, it can happen if your system needs new Windows updates. Corrupt and incompatible printer drivers are the basic reasons for the issue.

What is a Printer Driver?

A printer driver is a small program that is available on the PC. The function of the driver is to enable communication between the Printer and itself.

Printer Driver Working:

It has two primary functions. The first one is that it works as a bridge between the Printer and the PC. It helps the PC to realize the hardware specifications and printer details.

The second function is that the driver helps translate the print job data to signals that your Printer understands. Each Printer comes with its driver. The driver is written to fit its profile on a specific OS. If the Printer cannot configure correctly or installed a wrong device driver, your PC could not detect the Printer.

However, a few printer models are there capable of using generic drivers. These come preloaded with Windows 10 and enable you to print. In this case, you are not required to install extra drivers from the manufacturer. But it can sometimes not allow you to use your Printer to its full potential due to the absence of additional printer-specific functions and settings.

Why is your Printer unable to print with Windows 10?

Plenty of reasons can be there due to which your Printer behaves like unresponsive. Hence, it is vital to check out the common causes. For example, you should check if any paper is in the tray, wires are attached to the Printer, toner cartridges are not exhausted, and your Printer is hooked up to your Wi-Fi. Check the warning lights on your device or the error messages you see on your Windows 10 computer.

Besides, whether you have updated your OS from Windows 7 or 8 to Windows 10 recently and find your device unable to print, then it may be the upgrade process due to which your printer driver has been damaged. You may have a printer driver also that doesn’t support your new Windows version.

Microsoft indicated that there would be no backward compatibility preloaded into the operating system for a few specific software and apps. The same thing applies to a few specific printer drivers. Multiple printer manufacturers are unable to update the drivers in a timely fashion.

The issue can occur due to an incompatible driver or corrupt file. However, you can fix the problem by applying a systematic approach. In this case, you are only required to check for any Windows updates. After that, you need to install the recent driver for your Printer.

How to Fix Printer Driver is Unavailable Error?

The error message prevents you from printing though you change printer ink cartridges. It doesn’t enable you to use other functions such as Scan and Copy. Whether you face trouble, try to follow these processes to fix it.

But before proceeding, it is important to know about the requirements. These help to troubleshoot the methods very easily. Make sure that you will use the second requirement only when the first requirement won’t work.

First Requirement – Change UAC Settings:

UAC or User Account Control is a setting that lets you know when your windows (10, 8, or 7) make any system changes. The changes are mainly related to the user or admin rights. You should configure the UAC settings so that it will not prevent you from installing essential components and drivers for the Printer.

Perform these steps here:

  • First, your job is to ensure that you are signed in as the Administrator on the PC.
  • Then, your task is to move to the Control Panel and then User Accounts. After that, you should go to the option, “Change User Account Control Settings.”
  • You can see that there are three levels, including two levels above Never Notify and a level below Always Notify. Hence, you need to set the slider to the third level.
  • A box is available on the right side that lets you know the summary of the setting. It will say, “Notify me only when apps try to make changes to my computer (default)” at the top. You can also see this message “Recommended if you use familiar apps and visit familiar websites” at the bottom part of the box.
  • Tap on the OK.
  • Then, you have to tap Yes when a User Account Control Settings window is available. It asks permission for the application to make changes on the machine.

Second Requirement – Complete Admin Account Verification:

If the first one is not working, then the reason is that windows have added a verification step. In this process, the identity is verified as the Administrator and stops illegal access to your account. Besides, it provides control to the admin user on all the changes made on the computer.

Steps:

  • First, your task is to ensure that you have signed in as the computer’s Administrator.
  • After that, you are required to head towards the Control Panel, User Accounts, and Make Changes to my Account in PC settings, respectively.
  • Then, your job is to tap on the Verify that is available under the Your Info heading Windows. It asks you, “how would you like to get this code.” Now, you need to select the Email Address and tap on Next.
  • Microsoft will send a verification code to your email address. You need to copy & paste the code on your required entry and tap on Next.
  • After verifying your account, as soon as the installation of the printer driver starts, the verification step won’t be available.

Here, we have given some basic troubleshooting methods that you have to apply to resolve the issue.

Ways to Resolve Printer Driver Unavailable Issue

  • You need to check if your Printer is connected to a power source and PC through Wi-Fi or a cable is used.
  • Make sure that it is powered on and not in sleep/hibernation mode.
  • Whether you send a task through email, ensure that you have specified the proper email address.
  • Wi-Fi printers are tricky due to which you have to connect your machine to a similar Wi-Fi network. It is because the Printer is going to begin a task.
  • Check if the wires are attached correctly to the PC.
  • Try to use a different wire if the recent one is damaged.
  • Whether you have a USB-enabled printer, attach it to another one if your recent USB port is malfunctioning.
  • Make sure that the printer ink cartridges must not remain empty.

Way 1) Reinstall Printer’s Drivers:

Sometimes, the driver can lose important files or become corrupted. If something like this happens to you, you must uninstall every related software. Then, you have to install your driver back on the PC.

  • In this case, your first task is to head towards the Control Panel, then Hardware and Sound, Device and Printers, and Device Manager, respectively.
  • Tap on the option Print queues to see the drop-down list. Now, you need to look for the printer model on the list. As soon as you find this, tap on its icon. Then, your job is to select the Uninstall device option. Next, tap on the Uninstall option when your Windows ask you to confirm the action.
  • Now, you are required to move to the Control Panel of your PC, and then you have to tap on Devices and Printers. Hence, you need to select the Printer and then tap on Remove device available at the Window’s top right corner.
  • Finally, you have to reinstall the driver. Ensure that you have added each essential component in the installation.

Restart Automatically:

  • In this case, tap on the Start Scan first to detect the outdated or incompatible drivers.
  • You can take Smart Driver Care’s help as it helps scan the Windows for outdated drivers.
  • As soon as the scanning process completes, you can see the outdated drivers.
  • Tap on the Update button that is available to the printer driver. Whether you use the Pro version, then you need to tap on Update All for downloading automatically and installing all outdated drivers.
  • Now, restart the OS.
  • Finally, you have to check your OS to see if the problem remains.

Way 2) Update the Windows Operating System:

If your system is outdated, it can be a reason for the issue. If it happens to you, you have to install all available Windows updates. Thus, you are capable of fixing the issue. To update the windows operating system, perform these steps.

  • You should first hit the Search Bar button next to the Windows Start Menu button. Then, you are required to tap on the “Update” word.
  • Then, the Search Bar appears with a list of possible options regarding the query. Find the Windows Update option next. After finding this, you should tap on the Check for Updates button.
  • Now, windows start checking tor the available updates. Then, you need to install these automatically.
  • When the method ends, you have to restart the computer.
  • Finally, you are required to print any page to check the issue.

Way 3) Exclusive for Plug-and-Play Printers:

Do you have a plug-and-play printer? If you have this type of Printer, then the work will be a lot simpler.

To deal with the issue, you should first unplug the Printer from the PC. It indicates that you need to unplug all cords and wires connected between these. Then, you need to connect everything again and perform the steps given by the Setup Wizard.

When you see the Wizard not appearing, your task is to navigate to the Start and then Settings.

  • After that, tap on Devices.
  • Then, you should choose to Add a printer or scanner.
  • Wait for a while now till your system is not identifying the Printer. You are required to follow the instructions.
  • Now, you can see the windows identifying all devices attached to the computer. As soon as it identifies the Printer, you should finish the instructions given on display.

Way 4) Manually Update Your Printer Drivers:

If you face any trouble after carrying out a Windows update, update the printer drivers. Navigate to the printer manufacturer’s website and check if your device is compatible with Windows 10. You can get the Driver downloads option in the manufacturer’s Support section.

When you find your device supported, you have to download the recent stable version. You need to tap two times on the installer files to add the new driver as soon as you download. Sometimes, your device can only be compatible with the manual installation of drivers. Perform the steps to do this.

  • Head towards the Control Panel first and then open it.
  • Choose the Small Icons view option available on the top right of the dialog. Next, you need to tap on the Device Manager.
  • When you go to the Device Manager window, look for the printer you are willing to install. Sometimes, you can find your Printer missing. Besides, it can have corrupt or outdated drivers, due to which you can see a yellow exclamation mark beside the name.
  • Tap on the printer name, and then you need to select the Update Driver Software option from the pop-up menu.
  • Now a new window will appear with two options. Hence, you should select the option that is marked “Search automatically for updated driver software.”
  • You need to follow the steps available in the Wizard. It helps to install the recent drivers for your Printer if these are not available. If these have been downloaded already from the manufacturer’s support site, you have to choose “Browse my computer for driver software” instead.

Way 5) Run the Windows Update Tool:

Having an outdated operating system can be a reason for the issue. It is why you are required to install all the windows updates instantly as fast as you can. Thus, you can print again and get the overall stability and security of the PC. We have given here the process of running the Windows Update utility.

  • You should first hit the Start button that is available at the bottom-right corner of the display.
  • Then, your task is to tap on the Settings icon.
  • Now, you should select the Update and Security option.
  • Windows will find updates after that. If there is any, then you have to download and install it automatically.
  • As soon as the update method is finished, you need to reboot the PC.
  • When you reboot the PC, you should check if the error message is still available or not.

Way 6) Check for Damaged System Files:

Sometimes, corrupted or damaged system files can generate multiple issues. If you are willing to fix the error, then you need to use the Reimage to perform a full Windows scan and repair.

  • First, your task is to download the Reimage and install it.
  • Then, your job is to open the Reimage. After opening this, you need to tap Yes to run a free scan.
  • With the help of Reimage, you can scan the PC thoroughly. However, it can take some minutes.
  • As soon as you do this, a detailed report of all the troubles will be available on your computer. If you want to resolve these automatically, then you need to tap on START REPAIR. But to use this, you should buy the full version. Besides, it also comes with a 60-day money-back guarantee. Therefore, if you want, you can refund any time if Reimage is unable to fix the problem.
  • Now, you need to check your driver’s status as it will be normal now.

Way 7) Uninstall the Printer Driver:

Especially, two significant solutions are there that you can follow to fix the issue. The first one is to uninstall your Printer with all related software. Then, install this in your operating system. And the second one is that go through all the available drivers and then choose the correct one. It helps to uninstall them, and then you should try to connect it. Thus, the default drivers can be installed.

Steps:

  • First, your task is to tap on Windows + R buttons. Then, write “control” in the dialogue box and hit Enter. As soon as you enter the control panel, ensure that you have chosen the option View by Large icons. After that, you need to tap on the Devices and Printers.
  • You can now see all the names available in the list.
  • Tap on the name that is creating the issue. Then, you have to choose the “Remove device” option.
  • Now, you must hit Windows + R again, and after that, your task is to write “devmgmt.msc”. Your task is to move to the “Print queues” category and then tap on the Printer. After that, your task is to choose the “Uninstall device” option. Sometimes, the option may not be available in the Printer after removing it from the control panel. Therefore, there is nothing to take tension if you won’t find this.
  • Write “appwiz.cpl” in your dialogue box after typing Windows + R button. After that, your task is to hit Enter. All the apps are available in the list.
  • You should now tap on the printer applications and then choose “Uninstall.”
Further Steps:
  • When you complete performing the steps given above, you need to unplug the device from your PC. You should do this while the device is connected via a USB connection. You should unplug it from your router if it uses wireless. Then, your task is to close the PC, Printer, and router. After that, you are required to plug the power supply out.
  • You should wait for ten minutes. After waiting, you need to connect all of these and start all modules. You should then plug the device into your PC with the help of a USB cable initially. Now, you should wait till the detection process is not finished, and then you have to install your essential drivers.
  • You should then move to the control panel and tap on the device. After that, your job is to choose “Set as default printer.” You need to print a test page to check if the issue remains.

Via Device Manager:

  • First, you are required to hit the Start button. Then, your job is to move to the Device Manager section.
  • Hit the arrow button that is beside Print queues to extend this group.
  • If your Printer is not available in the list, then you need to open the View menu. Then, your task is to choose Show hidden devices.
  • Tap on the Printer and then choose Uninstall device.
  • Now, your task is to tap on Uninstall for confirmation.
  • As soon as you uninstall the device, you need to go to the Action menu and open it. Then, choose Scan for hardware changes.
  • Now, your task is to reboot the computer. Windows will install the missing device automatically.
  • At last, you should try using the Printer.

Way 8) Start Windows in Safe Mode:

You can try to boot your windows in Safe Mode as it is an ideal way to disable any non-critical drivers, services, or processes. These can affect the PC and cause errors.

The process of doing this is as follows:
  • Head towards the Start menu first and open it after that. Then, your job is to hit the power button.
  • Hold the Shift button down and then tap on Restart.
  • Now, you can find your Windows booting in Recovery startup mode with a blue screen.
  • Then, you should choose the Troubleshoot area.
  • After that, you must navigate to the Advanced options and then Startup Settings.
  • Tap on the Restart.
  • You should then tap F4 to turn on the Safe Mode.
  • As soon as your Windows boots, use your Printer.

Way 9) Install Generic Printer Driver:

Your PC may not detect the Printer or get stuck as an Unknown device. Hence, your task is to install default generic printer drivers manually. Perform the steps to do so.

  • Your first task is to tap the Windows key and hold this. Then, you need to tap X.
  • Next, you should choose the “Device Manager” option.
  • As soon as you open the Device Manager, you need to find the Printer. If you cannot find this, you should check if the “Unknown Devices” option is available in the category.
  • Tap on the device and tap on the “Update Driver” option.
  • Then, your task is to tap the “Browse my computer for drivers” option.
  • You should choose “Let me pick from the list of available drivers…..” and then select “Generic Software Device.”
  • Next, your job is to tap on the “Next” Option, and then you should restart the PC.

You should know that installing the Generic driver might not allow you to use some functionality. But it makes your device usable, at least.

Way 10) Reinstall Printer:

If you cannot solve the ‘Printer driver is unavailable’ error message, you should reinstall the Printer. The effective way that you can choose is to solve irregularities. If you are willing to do this, then perform the steps.

  • You should switch off the printer device and unplug it after that.
  • Then, you must write Add Or Remove Programs by going to the search field.
  • Next, you can choose the Printer that you are willing to uninstall.
  • Wait for a while till the uninstallation procedure is not completed.
  • You should now reboot the operating system and then connect it again. Now, you can turn on your Printer.
  • You can take the help of the installation disc or USB in this case.

Way 11) Roll back the Printer Driver:

Have you installed a driver mistakenly which does not support your Printer and operating system? It may be a reason why you are facing the error message. Hence, the easiest way to do this is to roll back your driver to an earlier version. These are the steps that you are required to perform to do this:

  • Your first task should be to tap on the Win key + R buttons. Then, you need to write devmgmt.msc. After that, you have to tap on the Enter to open Device Manager.
  • Then, your job is to expand the category of the Print queues.
  • Tap on the printing device, and then your task is to move to the Properties.
  • Now, go to the Driver tab.
  • You should now tap on the Roll Back Driver and then go through the instructions.
  • If you see the button in grey color, it indicates that no earlier version is saved on the computer. As a result, you are unable to perform the process.
  • Finally, your task is to reboot the Windows PC and then check your Printer.

Way 12) Set the Default Printer:

Have you connected many printers and scanners with your PC? If yes, your OS can take a hard time detecting your default printer. Therefore, the device will not function properly and show the error message. However, you can resolve this by setting the default printer.

  • First, your job is to tap Win key + R and then write Control Panel. Next, you need to hit Enter to open this app.
  • Then, you need to go to the Devices and Printers.
  • Now, you need to identify your printer name in the category of Printers.
  • Tap on this and then choose Set as the default printer.
  • Tap OK for confirmation.
  • Finally, check your Printer to see if it works.

Conclusion:

If you don’t want to face Printer driver-related issues such as printer driver is unavailable, or driver unavailable on the Printer, or Printer says a driver is unavailable error messages, then you should perform specific things. You need to keep the hard disk constantly optimized and install a driver from an actual source. Make sure that you haven’t installed any software from unknown sources. Try to use reliable driver updater software and keep the drivers updated. Wish our guide will help you to fix the error message ‘printer driver is unavailable’. Try all the methods one by one to resolve the error.

Frequently Asked Questions: 

How do you fix Printer Driver Is Unavailable Error?

You can solve the error by installing or updating the printer driver. Besides, you can also update the Windows Operating System to fix the issue.

How do you make your Printer Driver available?

The issue is usually seen when your driver becomes corrupted or outdated. In this case, updating your windows or the printer driver (manually or automatically) can help you.

What is the Driver Is Unavailable Error For The Printer?

It happens while the PC and printer driver is outdated or not compatible. Your Printer can experience multiple problems like paper getting stuck, unclear, blotched print, etc. The printer driver unavailable error is one of the examples of technical issues hence.

 

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Best DNS for PS4 in 2022

Best DNS for PS4 in 2022

Have you faced a lag during an intense match with your friends on PS4? Can’t perform the actions properly? Then, ensure that it is not a good sign. It can happen due to having a poor connection to the Internet. The internet connection is not always the problem because the DNS server may be a reason also. Therefore, you will need to use fast and best DNS for PS4 to enhance the quality of your ping and connection stability.

The ISP or Internet Service Provider you are using offers the default DNS settings for your connection. However, it is better if you will avoid using the default DNS. It is always recommended to use a custom DNS server. If you use a lousy DNS on your end, it can spoil the gaming experience you are having. It can ruin the experience whether you play multiplayer online gaming.

If you want to improve the lag in your gaming on your PlayStation4, it is advised to use a custom DNS server. When you use a custom DNS, it helps to improve latency problems. Besides, it is helpful for the gaming console. This guide will help you get the fastest and best DNS for PS4. You can use this for gaming PCs and mobile phones.

What is DNS?

DNS is the short form of the term Domain Name System. It is pretty similar to a phonebook for the Internet. Suppose you take a phonebook and click on a name. It will call the number associated with the name when you do this.

The function of DNS is to assist in setting up a connection between two different addresses. We can read one address, whereas one can be read by PC. A few reasons are there due to which your network speed may slow down. However, assigning a good DNS can provide better internet speed results. In simple terms, it is a tool to translate domain names to IP addresses.

What are the different types of DNS?

Like address books, there are different types of DNS also. We have given here three basic types of DNS.

Public and Private DNS:

Big telecom companies usually use private DNS. Whether you use Verizon, they offer private DNS servers. Therefore, you are unable to use any DNS server. On the flip side, the DNS servers that people can use are called Public DNS servers. Compared to a few private DNS servers, public servers are a little bit faster and safer. Google’s Public Server is an example of this.

Router DNS:

Sometimes, you can find routers that set themselves as DNS servers. While you are going to request a new URL, the router’s DNS server needs the DNS of the internet service provider for the respective IP address. After that, it will complete the request. Whether you will make a similar request next time, you are not required to put the address again. You will get a quicker response. Thus, Router DNS helps to set up an improved network connection.

Custom DNS:

Multiple private companies are there that offer Custom DNS servers. These are usually available as free or paid versions. You can use the free versions, but these have limitations. Compared to the default servers, the servers are quicker. These help to avoid censorship.

What is a DNS server?

It is a server that collects IP addresses with their corresponding hostname. People use DNS resolvers to resolve IP addresses and domain names. Besides, it is capable of translating web addresses to their IP addresses.

Why is a DNS server important?

We have said before that it is pretty similar to a phone directory of the Network. While you accept a page, your system will begin a DNS search. Websites with a very complex code or a multifaceted variant can be seen in many DNS lookups before the completion of loading the page. It indicates that your device is performing plenty of DNS searches each day. However, it relies on how many websites you visit and the degree of complexity of each webpage.

How to Find the Best DNS Server for PS4:

It is simple to test DNS latency, and hence you need to use the command prompt or any terminal tool defaulted into the PC. You can do this on Android or iOS. But you are required to download any ping utility.

You can use the ping command. In this case, you have to type the word ping followed by the IP address. After writing this, you should hit the enter button. Next, you will receive replies from the server with the latency. It is measured in milliseconds (ms). If you get lower latency, it will be better for you.

How to Setup DNS on PS4?

Your first task is to power on the PlayStation you have, and then you should head towards the “Settings” menu. Choose the “Network” option that is available in the Settings menu. Next, you can see some available options under the network menu. From all of the options, your task is to choose the option “Set Up Internet Connection .”Now, your job is to select one of these two— LAN or Wi-Fi. But it relies on how you use the Network to connect your PlayStation 4.

While you choose one of these two to connect the Network and your PlayStation 4, you should change the IP Address to Automatic. Next, you should set the DHCP as Do not specify. Now, you are required to change the DNS Settings to Manual when you set up the fastest DNS for PS4 of custom type. Select any custom DNS that you prefer, and then write the Primary DNS and Secondary DNS. After a while, you should tap on the Done option for updating the DNS. At last, you need to set the Maximum Transmission Unit as Automatic whereas setting the Proxy Server as Do Not Use. Check different DNS individually until you get the best DNS for PS4.

How to Configure DNS for PS4:

If you are willing to configure the DNS of your choice, your first task is to configure a static IP. It works on the parameters of network connection in a manual way.

If you are using PS4, you should navigate to the toolbar first and then select the icon available on the gear (adjustments). Now, you should hit the X button to get on the controller.

Next, you are required to select the menu’s RED View connection status similarly.

Then, you need to write these essential details: IP address from the PlayStation, subnet mask, and Default Gateway.

Sometimes, your device may not be connected to the Internet. In this case, details that are required need to be retrieved through these ways.

Default Gateway: The router’s internet protocol address to which the device should attach (usually 192.168.1.1 o 192.168.0.1).

Subnet mask: It displays how many IP addresses are there that the router can assign. The value usually is 255.255.255.0.

PlayStation IP: It is quite similar to the router’s IP rather than the last three digits.

Connect Your Play Station to the Wi-Fi

Now, you should attach the device to the Wi-Fi.

While you come with the essential details, you need to return to the menu Settings and then to the Network on PlayStation.

After that, you should choose the option and configure the network connection.

Then, you need to select the Wi-Fi for connection or use a LAN network cable.

Next, your task is to select Custom, and then you should continue with Wi-Fi.

Now, you should choose the wireless Network for connection purposes, and then you are required to type the password for access. However, if you use a wired LAN connection, you don’t need this.

When you are on the IP address settings display, you should choose Manual. Then, you have to enter the correct details and fill-up the form in the appropriate fields:

  • The retrieved information
  • The IP address that you assign to your PS4
  • The subnet mask Default Gateway
  • Primary and secondary DNS addresses that you have chosen.

At last, you are required to fix the value of the “Automatic MTU,” which means you can’t use proxy servers. When you complete acquiring the static IP address, the console can use the new DNS for PS4.

You are capable of checking the network connection. But to do this, you need to head towards the Settings first, then to the Network. After that, you can check the connection to ensure that it works.

How to Test DNS Speed:

We have given here two ways through which you are capable of testing the available DNS servers. Thus, you get to know which are the fastest PS4 DNS servers.

Automated Test using Namebench: You can use the free Google-created software as it can test many servers automatically. Thus, you are capable of measuring speed and response time.

Manual Test: Through the method, you may test the servers by changing them one by one. Then, you should perform a speed test individually.

Whether you are very serious, combine the two processes. It means that you have to run the Namebench first to get the three quickest options. After that, you need to test these on the gaming system manually. After testing, you can know which one performs the best in which conditions.

Check DNS Server Speeds Using Dig:

If you use a quick DNS server, it can help you improve the browsing experience. Hence, you are capable of checking the response time of a specific DNS server with the help of the Linux ‘dig’ command. The standard form of Dig is domain information groper. It is actually a Linux tool that users may use for querying DNS servers. Here, we have given an example where a standard dig command is used. The command uses an inbuilt DNS server that is configured on your server. The command is asking Dig for querying ‘wordpress.org.’

$ dig @1.1.1.1 wordpress.org +noall +stats

; <<>> DiG 9.10.3-P4-Ubuntu <<>> @1.1.1.1 wordpress.org +noall +stats

; (1 server found)

;; global options: +cmd

;; Query time: 96 msec

;; SERVER: 1.1.1.1#53(1.1.1.1)

;; WHEN: Tue Aug 07 08:28:18 IST 2018

;; MSG SIZE  rcvd: 58

How to find the Fastest DNS using Namebench:

The way to find the fastest DNS is as follows:

  1. Download and install Namebench:

First, you are required to download this. To do this, you need to move to the official downloads page and install the version you prefer.

After that, you need to extract the installer and run it. You can drag .dmg to the app folder for installation of the Namebench.

  1. Running the Test:

When you test the possible DNS servers, you must copy the IP address and then paste it into the ‘Nameservers’ field of Namebench. Ensure that you have put a comma and a space between IP addresses.

You can check the boxes automatically to test the most famous global DNS providers such as GoogleDNS and OpenDNS.

How to Reset DNS?

You can reset the DNS by resetting the router. Thus, you can get rid of the DNS error. In this case, you should head towards the router and see a reset button on it. Then, you need to tap on the button to reset the configurations.

Benefits of DNS Changes When Gaming:

To offer the best connection, DNS servers help to decrease the traffic. Besides, most DNS services can be used safely, due to which people can use them to get access to the blocked content.

Connection stability: Changing the DNS settings can provide a reliable connection to reroute your traffic.

Quicker loading times: You may face web pages loading more quickly if you have lower query times. You can decrease ping, jitter, and packet loss.

Parental Controls: After going to the Settings, you need to use DNS to help parental control.

Better security: If you use DNS, you will get better security through firewalls and Phishing protection.

 

20 Fastest DNS Servers For PS4:

Google:

8.8.8.8

8.8.4.4

Cloudflare DNS:

1.1.1.1

1.0.0.1

DNS Advantage:

156.154.70.1

156.154.71.1

OpenDNS Home:

208.67.220.220

208.67.222.222

Safe DNS:

195.46.39.39

195.46.39.40

Comodo DNS:

8.26.56.26

8.20.247.20

OpenNIC:

23.94.60.240

128.52.130.209

Dyn:

216.146.35.35

216.146.36.36

FreeDNS:

37.235.1.174

37.235.1.177

Yandex.DNS:

77.88.8.8

77.88.8.1

DNS. Watch:

82.200.69.80

84.200.70.40

Alternate DNS:

198.101.242.72

23.253.163.53

SmartViper:

208.76.50.50

208.76.51.51

Verisign/Neustar:

64.6.64.6

64.6.65.6

Uncensored DNS:

91.239.100.100

89.233.43.71

Quad9:

9.9.9.9

114.112.112.112

OneDNS:

117.50.11.11

117.50.22.22

Fourth Estate:

45.77.165.194

45.32.36.36

Century Link:

205.171.3.66

205.171.202.166

CleanBrowsing:

185.228.168.168

185.228.168.165

Primary DNS is called preferred DNS, whereas secondary DNS is called alternate DNS.

About Five Best DNS for PS4:

Now, we let you know about the best DNS servers for PS4 and gaming. All services can offer high performance.

  1. Smart DNS:

The server allows you to load quickly, and it doesn’t need any help to set up. It is a reasonably new service than the other heavyweights we have mentioned. The server was founded in 2013.

  1. Google Public DNS:

Privacy and transparency are the two core advantages. 8.8.8.8 & 8.8.4.4 are the primary and secondary DNS servers, respectively. It is the best DNS server for gaming and is very easy to use. This one is an ideal replacement for the default one you use. It offers the best IP address for gaming and provides a steady connection that enables your device to run easily. Besides, it is the reason due to which Google Public server is called the best one for gaming. It will log whole IP data to troubleshoot and diagnose for about 24 to 48 hours.

  1. Cloudflare:

This server delivers excellent performance, airtight privacy levels, etc. Its primary DNS server is 1.1.1.1, whereas the secondary is 1.0.0.1.

It comes with a content delivery network, and most cybersecurity professionals prefer to use this. However, the range has been expanded now, and people can get a new server – 1.1.1.1. The new one has insisted on many additional things than the fundamentals that are made depending upon performance and DNSPerf. Independent testing has been done that lets you know that it is the fastest public DNS service available.

The server won’t log the querying IP address. If any logs are taken, these will be removed in 24 hours. KPMG is the one that has been contracted to audit the server.

The server does not offer AD-blocking. Besides, it won’t monitor your work. 1.1.1.2 or 1.0.0.2 & 1.1.1.3/1.0.0.3 services are used for enabling content filtering for malware. It is used to block the adult contents also.

  1. OpenDNS:

OpenDNS, a seasoned operator, was established first in 2005. The recent owner of the company is CISCO. It offers web filtering though it is optional. Besides, the phishing sites available will remain blocked by default.

The primary DNS server is 208.67.222.222, whereas 208.67.220.220 is the secondary DNS server.

The Open DNS comes with two service packages: OpenDNS Home and OpenDNS Home VIP.

These services cost US$19.95 each year for the OpenDNS Home VIP service.

This server has impressive features such as blocking phishing sites, high operating speeds, 100% uptime, optional parental controls, and free email technical support. The server is capable of offering the best IP address for PlayStation.

If you use the paid OpenDNS plan, check the internet activity history. After that, you are required to lock down your system. But to do this, you have to allow access to the particular sites merely. However, average users must not be required to do this.

  1. Comodo Secure DNS:

The server contains a good focus on security, but its performance is not so good. It comes with a feature of smart handling of parked domains. The primary Comodo DNS server is 8.26.56.26, whereas the secondary server is 8.20.247.20.

The server is capable of blocking phishing sites. Besides, you will get a warning whether any site contains malware, spyware, or parker domains. People can get the Comodo Dome Shield service also as an extra benefit. This service includes additional features to the Comodo Secure DNS.

The query time of the server is 72ms, which is less impressive compared to its intelligent routing technology. Whether you are searching for an additional web filtering layer, then it is an excellent choice. 

The Bottom Line:

The final thing you should know is that DNS settings need to be merely one component of your gaming speed stack. However, the overall connection speed is vital. But if you are willing to get the maximum percentage of your allotted speed, it is necessary to use an ethernet connection. Make sure that you are not using Wi-Fi for gaming. The reason is that you may experience speed loss, interference, and latency while using Wi-Fi. We have discussed in this article about the best DNS for ps4. I hope you like this very much.

Frequently Asked Question:  

  • How to find my DNS Server?

When you want to find the DNS server, you must head towards the IP address of the Wireless Router. After that, you need to check the DNS server. If not possible, you may ask the Internet Service Provider about the DNS they use.

  • What is the best DNS for PS4?

The first thing you need to know is that there is no specific DNS suitable for everyone. It is recommended to check Google and Cloudflare DNS first. These are the best DNS servers for PS4. The performance of the DNS server is no constraint and relies on the location and ISP.

  • Is it safe to change DNS on PS4?

Yes, you can change the DNS on the playstation 4 device safely. Whether you are willing to revert to your default DNS, you can do it at any time.

 

 

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How to Fix err_address_unreachable Error in Your Browser

How to Fix err_address_unreachable Error in Your Browser

Most of the people across the world prefer to use Google Chrome as a browser. However, many users have already encountered the message ERR_ADDRESS_UNREACHABLE on Chrome. If you have already faced the problem, the reasons can be router issues, proxy settings, wrong website access environment, server problems, etc. Due to these issues, you may be unable to access a few sites on your PC.

What Does The err_address_unreachable Error Mean?

This err_address_unreachable error message is common on the Chrome browser while using a Windows PC. It usually happens for the Domain Name System (DNS) when it carries an error. This is the reason due to which you are unable to load web pages using the host.

What causes the error “ERR_ADDRESS_UNREACHABLE” in the Chrome browser?

We have given here the reasons for which you can face the issue while trying to access any site on the browser.

Router Issues:

The router that you are using can create problems in submitting requests to the designated ports.

Proxy Settings:

Whether you use a proxy network to access websites, it might not handle your requests properly. In this case, you have to disable the proxy server or try to enable it as per the situation.

Wrong Website:

This message can appear while you are trying to access a private address in a public network.

Server issues: Whether you are a website owner, you should know whether your users can access your site or not. The error can appear due to some other reason related to your site.

DNS Cache Problem:

The chrome browser stores caches of different sites. Hence, the DNS cache can be a reason for the err_address_unreachable issue.

Antivirus Issue:

If you use antivirus to check websites, you can find the site spam or harmful. The installed antivirus may block the chrome browser and not allow it to reach the website.

Slow Internet Connectivity:

While you are using any network, the internet connection can be low, due to which you may not load a website. Hence, the browser displays the err_connection_timed_out message. Sometimes, it can display the message Err_network_changed where the address is unreachable.

When you are trying the fixes, ensure that you have a proper internet connection. However, whether you are willing to access a private address, you should be in the network.

err_address_unreachable’ Error on Chrome:

When you see the error, you cannot access the websites you prefer for some reason on the Google Chrome browser. The ‘This site can’t be reached’ message comes with the ‘err_address_unreachable’ error code. The message says that you are unable to get access to the webpage. So, it is essential to run Network Diagnostic to identify the real reason for the error. Ensure that you are refreshing the webpage on the chrome browser, then check if it works.

Sometimes, you can face the problem due to temporary glitches in the networking equipment and Windows. Hence, you are required to try to reboot both your router and PC. Then, you should check whether restarting the device helps to get rid of the issue or not. Generally, router and router settings-related issues are the reasons for the error. If you’re willing to solve the error, restarting or resetting the router can help you. If the proxy server settings are turned on on the Windows computer, you can also see the error. However, problems with the website server itself are also one of the causes of the issue.

Similar Types of NET::ERR_ADDRESS_UNREACHABLE Error problem:

  • Err_address_unreachable ubuntu
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  • Net::err_address_unreachable
  • Err_address_unreachable mac 2018
  • This site can’t be reached
  • Err_address_unreachable mac 2020
  • Err_address_unreachable wordpress
  • How to fix err_address_unreachable chromebook
  • Err_address_unreachable reddit
  • Jio fiber err_address_unreachable

How to Fix err_address_unreachable the Error on Your Browser:

First, ensure that no problem will be there at the server-side. If there is no problem with the server, then the issue is at your side. Before proceeding with the fixing methods, you have to ensure that you have proper network connectivity. When you see the network connection is fine, then check these solutions given below.

Restart Your Router:

In most cases, when you restart the router, you can solve the issue immediately. Multiple cases are there where the router goes into an error state. If you face the situation, restart the router to get rid of the error message.

First, your job is to close the power supply of the router. After that, your task is to wait for around 2-5 minutes.

When the time has gone, turn it back on. Wait for a while, and then try to attach the PC again.

After that, try to access the website and then check if you are still facing the error.

Are you unable to fix the problem? Are you facing it till now? Then, reset the router. In this case, one thing you have to ensure is that you must know the details of the ISP of the router. If you don’t know, then you should know it first before resetting the router.

Hence, your job is to first find the small hole behind the router device with the reset tag.

Use a little pin after that, and then try to tap the hole continuously for 4-5 seconds.

Now, you can connect the router after a reset. Use an Ethernet wire if necessary and then head towards the router address. You can find the router’s address on the backside of it in most cases.

Next, you are required to put the details that you get from your ISP to access the network. Finally, check if the issue remains.

Disable Proxy Server:

A proxy server is the same as a VPN, and therefore you can use it with ease while connecting to a public network. When you use a proxy server outside of the organization or office, it can cause connection problems. In this case, you have to turn off the Proxy settings.

If you want to disable the proxy server, your job is to tap the Windows key + R button available on the keyboard to open the RUN dialog box.

When you are in the RUN dialog box, you must write inetcpl.cpl. Then, you should tap the Enter key or OK for opening the Internet Properties window.

Tap the Connections tab when the Properties window is opened.

Then, navigate to the LAN settings tab below the Local Area Network (LAN) settings.

Ensure that you have unchecked the “Use a proxy server for your LAN” option.

Then, you are required to mark the “Automatically detect settings” option.

After that, your task is to tap the OK to make changes. Then, get out of the LAN settings.

Finally, your task is to tap the OK button to get out of the Internet Properties window.

Clear Google Chrome DNS Cache:

Domain Name Server is the full form of DNS. The function of the server is to store the IP addresses of those domains you have visited. This browser helps to increase the speed of your internet browsing. To do this, you have to keep all the DNS data of the sites. You can face the issue due to this error. The reason is that Chrome may use the cache data for accessing the page that has moved to a different IP address.

It is better to delete the DNS cache memory to fix the issue. If you are willing to remove the DNS cache of the browser, then you need to copy the address and paste it into the address/URL bar. Next, your task is to tap the Enter button after pasting this address chrome://net-internals/#dns.

A page appears in front of the display after that. You need to tap the Clear host cache button.

Now, you have to remove the Host data DNS from the PC.

At last, your job is to relaunch the browser. Then, move to the troubled website again. Deleting the cache helps you to reset the device.

Disable your Antivirus App:

If you use any Antivirus software or third-party antivirus programs, it can create issues like ERR_ADDRESS_UNREACHABLE. Whether you want to solve the problem, you have to disable the antivirus program temporarily. Then, you can check if the issue remains.

If you find the antivirus software not causing the issue, you must enable the antivirus software again to keep the PC protected.

For Windows Defender:

Tap the Start button or Windows logo key first to get available at the lower left.

Then, you can see the settings icon. Tap on that for opening the section of Windows Settings.

When you are in the Windows settings section, you need to tap the Update and Security option.

Next, your task is to tap the Windows security available at the left pane.

Navigate to the protection areas section and tap on the Virus and Threat protection. After that, you will see a window appearing on display.

When the new window appears, you must tap the Manage settings option from Virus and Threat Protection settings.

Then, your job is to toggle the Real-time protection off.

Finally, reboot the PC.

For AVG:

First, tap two times on the AVG icon on the system tray.

Hit the option Temporarily disable AVG protection.

Then, choose the timing for how long you want it to be disabled. Select if you are willing to turn off its Firewall too. Tap the OK option if you are ready to disable the antivirus program.

For McAfee:

First, your task is to tap on the McAfee icon two times. The icon is available on the system tray.

Tap the Exit option after that.

Next, you can see a dialog box appearing saying that McAfee protection will be turned off. Hence, you have to tap the Yes option for turning off the antivirus program.

For Avast:

Hence, you need to tap on the Avast icon twice, which is available on the computer system tray.

After that, your job is to tap the Avast shields control option.

Now, you have to find the options for turning off the program. The options are as follows— for 10 minutes, an hour until the computer is restarted, or permanently. The option permanently indicates that it remains disabled until you turn this on again. After that, you have to select an option suitable for you. Use the option for turning off the program.

Launch the browser again and then check whether the issue remains or not

Reset TCP/IP:

We know TCP/IP as an internet protocol component useful for connecting with a network. When this gets corrupted, you can face a problem due to which you may not be capable of loading a webpage. Hence, resetting the TCP/IP of the PC can help you to solve the problem. If you cannot fix the error, you may want to reset TCP/IP with Command Prompt.

You should always be careful as your device may be affected if any wrong operation occurs while using Command Prompt. An improper operation can lead to data loss.

Step 1: First, your task is to navigate the Run window and open it. After that, you need to write cmd and then tap the Shift + Ctrl + Enter buttons for running Command Prompt as administrator.

Step 2: Hence, your job is to enter the following commands. Tap on the Enter after each.

  • ipconfig /release
  • ipconfig /all
  • netsh Winsock reset
  • netsh int ip set dns
  • ipconfig /flushdns
  • ipconfig /renew

Now, get out of the Command Prompt and then helps to reboot your PC. After restarting the computer, you have to launch the browser.

Clear Browsing Data:

Sometimes, the data you are using can be corrupted. In this case, what you should do is clear the browsing data.

We have given here the method for clearing the browsing data from the Chrome browser.

Hence, first, your task is to launch the browser.

After that, you are required to tap the vertical three dots. This menu is available at the top right corner of the browser display.

Next, move to the options list and then select the Settings option.

After that, head towards the Privacy and security section while you are in the settings.

When you enter the section, your job is to move to the Clear browsing data.

Now, go to the Advanced tab.

You should make changes to the Time range to All time. After that, you should check these items.

Browsing history,

cookies, and other site data,

site settings, and

hosted app data.

Tap on the Clear data button at the bottom of the display. Now, you should wait for a while till the data is cleared.

If you don’t clear data from the chrome browser, you should know that the more you clear data, the quicker the process will complete.

Check Address:

You can encounter the error if you try to access a private address while connecting to a public network. There are network addresses like ‘192.168.1.8’ etc. that you can access only in private networks.

You need to ensure that the address you are willing to access is not bound because of networks. If it happens, then you can confirm that you have connected to the correct network. Next, you should try to reaccess the network.

Try these solutions we have given below:

You can access the site in another network using a different ISP.

Besides, if necessary, then use another browser to access the site. If you find the other browser working correctly,

then the issue is with your browser. Hence, you are required to reset the browser or try to reinstall that.

You can check the address in the incognito tab. In this way, you can make sure that if the browser add-ons are the ones who are responsible for the issue.

If you are willing, you can try to access the site on another device but on the same network. Repeat the same process while you are connected to a different network. Thus, you can diagnose the issue to check if the culprit is your device or the network.

Whether each solution fails, you need to contact your ISP.

Change to Google DNS server on DNS Settings:

In most cases, whenever you find DNS (Domain Name System) related problems, you can fix them by changing DNS servers with the help of a Google Public DNS server. Hence, your task is to change the settings on Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) for your preferable DNS server and Alternate DNS server. Now, check whether you are capable of solving the problem or not.

To get rid of the issue, first tap the Windows key + I buttons together that are available on the keyboard. By pressing the buttons, you can open the Windows settings section easily.

After going inside Windows Settings, your job is to tap the option Network & Internet.

Tap the option Change Adapter that is available below Advanced network settings of network status. Hence, you can see a new window appearing.

Then, your task is to tap on the network that is available in the Network Connections window. After that, you should tap the Properties option from the drop-down menu.

You can see the Networking tab option available below the Wi-Fi Properties. Hence, you have to tap on the option.

Now, you are required to scroll the page down and then tap two times on the Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) for opening the section.

Tap the “Use the following DNS server addresses” option now.

Input 8.8.8.8 as a Preferred DNS server.

Input 8.8.4.4 as Alternate DNS server

Hit the OK option for making changes.

Next, your job is to relaunch the browser and check whether the message alert is still available in the Chrome Browser or not.

Reset Network Settings:

If you encounter problems with the network settings, you may experience this error message where the address can’t be reached. Besides,  if you are willing to get rid of the issue, try resetting the network settings by going to the command prompt.

If you want to do this, your first job should be to write ‘Command Prompt at the search bar on the lower left.

Next, you are required to tap the option command prompt result. After tapping, a drop-down menu will appear. From there, you have to choose the Run as Administrator option and tap on that.

When you are at the Command prompt window, you should try to write these commands. Then, you should tap the Enter option after each command.

You have to write the command ipconfig/release and then hit the Enter option.

Now, write ipconfig/all and tap Enter.

Write ipconfig/flushdns and hit the Enter key again.

Next, you need to type the command ipconfig/renew and then tap the Enter key.

Write this command now netsh int ip set dns, and after writing the command, you should hit the Enter key.

You have to write the command netsh Winsock reset and now hit the Enter key.

Write the ipconfig/renew command and then tap the Enter key again.

Finally, your job is to restart the PC.

As soon as the PC finishes the rebooting process, you should check whether the ERR_ADDRESS_UNREACHABLE error message is available or not.

Forget Wi-Fi Network and Reconnect:

Hence, you can try to delete the current Wi-Fi network and then connect it again. If you are willing to get rid of the error, you should follow the steps.

First, a drop-down menu appears to see the Network Preferences option at the bottom part of the menu.

Tap on the Wi-Fi option, which is available on the left side, and then tap on the Advanced option available at the bottom right of the pop-up window.

Now, you are required to choose the Wi-Fi network that you prefer to “forget” and then tap the minus sign. After that, your job is to hit the OK option.

Finally, you should type the username and password to reconnect the Wi-Fi network.

Turn on and Turn Off the Airplane Mode:

If you are willing to restart the device’s Wi-Fi and mobile-data components, you need to enable and disable the airplane mode. Try to restart the components as it can solve the error.

Remove Chrome Extensions:

Your PC can display the err_address_unreachable error for the chrome extensions you use. It is another strong reason for experiencing the error message. Using the Incognito mode of Chrome can help you in this case. When you use this mode, your browsing history or extensions are not stored because of the private browsing settings.

You should try to open the page in incognito to check the extensions if these cause the issue. If you can open the webpage with ease in the incognito tab, then ensure that this one is an extension error.

In this case, you must head towards the chrome://extensions to uncheck every extension manually. Then, you have to run the webpage to check which one is the culprit.

Update Google Chrome:

We primarily use Google Chrome as our regular browser to update automatically. However, if necessary, you can update it manually.

First, your task is to tap the three vertically aligned dots that you can see on the browser’s upper-right corner.

After that, your job is to tap the Settings and then Tap the About Chrome option. Make sure that you are updated. Otherwise, it asks you to update.

You should know that other browsers come with similar layouts and update procedures.

Use a Different Web Browser:

While you are using Google Chrome, you can experience plenty of err_address_unreachable error messages.

The reason is that the chrome browser may use its IPv6 DNS settings, due to which you can face the DNS resolving issue. Therefore, you are unable to get access to the websites. A few people experienced in the dns probe identified no internet problem due to this.

It would be best to try to access a similar webpage using a different web browser. For example, you can use Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft Edge. You may be capable of using the page on another browser but face the issue on Google Chrome merely. If it is the reason, then try this method.

Website is Down, Moved or not Exist:

Have you found your ISP not the culprit? Has it not blocked the webpage that you are using? Then, one thing that you can ensure is that your webpage server may be down. You can wait for a day until it comes alive again. Whether the web page won’t come, it either moves to another new address or doesn’t exist.

Use ‘PC Repair Tool’:

If the windows PC is causing the error, then the best way you can follow is to take the help of a ‘PC Repair Tool’ for solving the error. The additional benefits you can get from the software are that it can solve BSOD errors, EXE errors, DLL errors, programs/applicators issues, malware or viruses problems, and other system issues.

What will you do if no method will work for err_address_unreachable Chrome Windows 10?

If you have been experiencing the issue till now, then ensure that you are not the one who is causing the problem. Your device also works well.

How to Fix err_address_unreachable Error on Mobile?

Not only on a computer, but you can also face the issue on your mobile while surfing the web on a chrome browser. Hence, you are required to check the internet connectivity first. If it is fine, then you are required to restart the device.

You should check whether the mobile data or the Wi-Fi is working accurately or not. If the network is working fine, then the issue is on the server side. However, if your server is not responding to your device and responding to another one, follow the steps.

First, your task should be to enable the flight mode. Then, you have to wait for sixty seconds and then disable it.

Next, you should disconnect the Wi-Fi and then connect this again if you see the error.

Now, try to reboot the android mobile.

You can try to remove the browsing data and cache of the chrome browser

If you want, you can uninstall the browser and then try to install this.

Conclusion:

ERR_ADDRESS_UNREACHABLE is a type of error that is available in chrome browsers mostly. When it appears, it indicates that the browser you are using cannot get an answer from the site. It is actually on the IP address linked to your preferred domain name.

However, you should know that you can face the error on the other end of the connection. It indicates that your website may be down or moved. You can also see the error message while your network service provider or network administrator blocks the website.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Why are you unable to find the address of all websites?

There are a few websites that are unreachable due to server-related problems. For example, the server may be down or under maintenance. If you want to access an unreachable webpage, wait until the server becomes active. However, when you find the server responding to another device, then the issue is at your end.

  • How can you solve err_address_unreachable on mac?

Hence, you are required to diagnose your Chrome browser and mac book. You can reboot the system and modem, check the network connection, clear the Chrome cache, browsing history, etc.

  • What is Err_timed_out?

While trying to open any website on Google Chrome, it may take too much time to load. But if it fails to load the page, you can see the Err_timed_out error appearing.

 

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